Étiquette : war

 

Paris Schiller Institute stages Afghan civil society protest against UNESCO

Initiators of the call, Kabul, November 2023.

How it started

Following a highly successful conference in Kabul last November by the Ibn-e-Sina Research & Development Center on the reconstruction of Afghanistan, a group of senior archaeologists of the Afghan Academy of Sciences (ASA), in discussion with the organizers and the invited experts of the Schiller Institute, suggested to launch a common appeal to UNESCO and Western governments to “lift the sanctions against cultural heritage cooperation.”

The Call

The dramatic neglect of international cultural institutions and donors to Afghanistan, the lack of sufficient funds in the field of cultural heritage protection, and the political treatment of international cultural heritage institutions have seriously endangered Afghanistan,” underscores the petition.

Specifically, “UNESCO, which should raise its voice against any new form of ‘cultural and scientific apartheid,’ has repeatedly worsened the situation by politicizing issues beyond its prerogatives.”

To conclude, the signers call

Living Spirit of Afghanistan

To date, over 550 signatures have been collected, mainly from both Afghan male (370) and female (140) citizens, whose socio-professional profiles indicates they truly represent the « living spirit of the nation ».

Among the signatories: 62 university lecturers, 27 doctors, 25 teachers, 25 members of the Afghan Academy of Sciences, 23 merchants, 16 civil and women’s rights activists, 16 engineers, 10 directors and deans of private and public universities, 7 political analysts, 6 journalists, 5 prosecutors, several business leaders and dozens of qualified professionals from various sectors.

International support

On four continents (Europe, Asia, America, Africa), senior archaeologists, scientists, researchers, members of the Academy of Sciences, historians and musicians from over 20 countries have welcomed and signed this appeal.

Italian Professor Pino Arlacchi, a former member of the European Parliament and the former head of United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) was the first to sign. Award-winning American filmmaker Oliver Stone, is a more recent signer.

In France, Syria, Italy, the UK and Russia, among the signers one finds senior researchers suffering the consequences of what some have identified as a « New Cultural Cold War. » Superseding the very different opinions they have on many questions, the signatories stand united on the core issue of this appeal: for science to progress, all players, beyond ideological, political and religious differences, and far from the geopolitical logic of ‘blocs’, must be able to exchange freely and cooperate, in particular to protect mankind’s historical and cultural heritage.

Testifying to the firm commitment of the Afghan authorities, the petition has also been endorsed by the Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Minister of Culture and Arts, and the Minister of Agriculture, as well as senior officials from the Ministries of Higher Education, Water and Energy, Mines, Finance, and others.

The 46th session of UNESCO’s World Heritage Committee, to be held in New Delhi in July this year, offers UNESCO the opportunity to announce Afghanistan’s full return into world heritage cooperation, if we can have our voice heard,” says Karel Vereycken of the Paris Schiller Institute. “We certainly will not miss transmitting this appeal to HE Vishal V Sharma, India’s permanent representative to UNESCO, recently nominated to make the Delhi 46th session a success.”

Full text of the appeal

SIGNERS:
A. FROM AFGHAN CIVIL SOCIETY:

Hussain Burhani, Archaeologist, Numismatist, Afghanistan ;

Ketab Khan Faizi, Archaeologist, Director of the Academy of Sciences at the International Centre for Kushan Studies in Kabul, Afghanistan;

Storai Shams Mayar, Archaeologist, member of the Academy of Sciences at the International Centre for Kushan Studies in Kabul, editor in chief of the journal of this mentioned center, Afghanistan;

Mahmood Jan Drost, Senior Architect, head of protection of old cities of Afghanistan, Ministry of Urban Development and Housing, Afghanistan;

Ghulam Haidar Kushkaky, Archaeologist, associate professor, Archaeology Investigation Center, Afghanistan ;

Shawkatullah Abed, Chief of staff, Afghan Science Academy, Afghanistan;

Sardar Ghulam Ali Balouch, Head of Afghanistan Balochs Union, Afghanistan;

Daud Azimi Shinwari, Ibn-e-Sina Research & Development Center, Germany;

Abdul Fatah Raufi, Ibn-e-Sina Research & Development Center, Kabul, Afghanistan;

Mirwais Popal, Dip, Master, Ibn-e-Sina Research & Development Center, Germany;

B. FROM ABROAD:


(Russia, China, USA, Indonesia, France, Angola, Germany, Turkiye, Italy, Mexico, Sweden, Iran, Belgium, Czech Republic, Syria, Congo Brazzaville, Yemen, Venezuela, Pakistan, Canada, Democratic Republic of Congo.)

Julio Bendezu-Sarmiento, Researcher at the National Scientific Research Centre (CNRS), Archaeologist specializing in Central Asia; Former director of the Delegation of French Archaeologists in Afghanistan (DAFA) (2014-2018), France;

Inès Safi, CNRS, Researcher in Theoretical Nanophysics, France;

Pierre Leriche, Archeologist, Director of Research Emeritus at CNRS-AOROC, Scientific Director of the Urban Archaeology of the Hellenized Orient research program, France;

Nadezhda A. Dubova, Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Dr. in Biology, Prof. in History. Head of the Russian-Turkmen Margiana archaeological expedition, Russian Academy of Science (RAS), Russia;

Raffaele Biscione, retired, associate Researcher, Consiglio Nazionale delle Recerche (CNR); former first researcher of CNR, former director of the CNR archaeological mission in Eastern Iran (2009-2022), Italy;

Dr. Razia Sultanova, Professor, Cambridge University, UK;

Dr. Houmam Saad, Archaeologist, Directorate General of Antiquities and Museums, Syria;

Estelle Ottenwelter, Institute of Archaeology, Czech Academy of Sciences, Natural Sciences and Archaeometry, Post-Doc, Czech Republic;

Didier Destremau, author, diplomat, former French Ambassador, President of the Franco-Syrian Friendship Association (AFS), France ;

Wang Feng, Professor, South-West Asia Department of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS), China;

Dr. Engin Beksaç, Professor, Trakya University, Department of Art History, Turkiye;

Bruno Drweski, Professor, National Institute of Oriental Languages and Civilizations (INALCO), France;

Maurizio Abbate, National President of National Agency of Cultural Activities (ENAC), Italy;

Patricia Lalonde, Former Member of the European Parliament, vice-president of Geopragma, author of several books on Afghanistan, France;

Pino Arlacchi, Professor of sociology, Former Member of the European Parliament, former head of United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Italy;

Oliver Stone, Academy Award-winning Film director, Producer, and Screenwriter;

Graham E. Fuller, Author, former Station chief for the CIA in Kabul until 1978, former Vice-Chair of the National Intelligence Council (1986), USA;

Prof. H.C. Fouad Al Ghaffari, Advisor to Prime Minister of Yemen for BRICS Countries affairs, Yemen;

Farhat Asif, President of Institute of Peace and Diplomatic Studies (IPDS), Pakistan;

Irène Neto, president, Fundacao Dr. Antonio Agostinho Neto (FAAN), Angola;

Luc Reychler, Professor international politics, University of Leuven, Belgium;

Pierre-Emmanuel Dupont, Expert and Consultant in public International Law, Senior Lecturer at the Institut Catholique de Vendée, France;

Dr. Ririn Tri Ratnasari, Professor, Head of Center for Halal Industry and Digitalization, Advisory Board at Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia;

Dr. Clifford A. Kiracofe, Author, retired Professor of International Relations, USA;

Bernard Bourdin, Dominican priest, Philosophy and Theology teacher, Institut Catholique de Paris (ICP), France;

Dr. jur. Wolfgang Bittner, Author, Göttingen, Germany;

Annie Lacroix-Riz, Professor Emeritus of Contemporary History, Université Paris-Cité, France;

Mohammad Abdo Al-Ibrahim, Ph.D in Philology and Literature, University Lecturer and former editor in chief of the Syria Times, Syria;

Jean Bricmont, Author, retired Physics Professor, Belgium;

Syed Mohsin Abbas, Journalist, Broadcaster, Political Analyst and Political Justice activist, Pakistan;

Eduardo D. Greaves PhD, Professor of Physics, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Caracas, Venezuela;

Dora Muanda, Scientific Director, Kinshasa Science and Technology Week, Democratic Republic of Congo;

Dr. Christian Parenti, Professor of Political Economy, John Jay College CUNY, New York, USA;

Diogène Senny, President of the Panafrican Ligue UMOJA, Congo Brazzaville;

Waheed Seyed Hasan, Journalist based in Qatar, former Special correspondent of IRNA in New Delhi, former collaborator of Tehran Times, Iran;

Alain Corvez, Colonel (retired), Consultant International Strategy consultant, France;

Stefano Citati, Journalist, Italy;

Gaston Pardo, Journalist, graduate of the National University of Mexico. Co-founder of the daily Liberacion, Mexico;

Jan Oberg, PhD, Peace and Future Research, Art Photographer, Lund, Sweden.

Julie Péréa, City Councilor for the town of Poussan (Hérault), delegate for gender equality and the fight against domestic violence, member of the Sète Agglopole Méditerranée gender equality committee, France;

Helga Zepp-LaRouche, Founder and International President of the Schiller Institute, Germany;

Abid Hussein, independent journalist, Pakistan;

Anne Lettrée, Founder and President of the Garden of Titans, Cultural Relations Ambassador between France and China for the Greater Paris region, France;

Karel Vereycken, Painter-engraver, amateur Art Historian, Schiller Institute, France;

Carlo Levi Minzi, Pianist, Musician, Italy;

Leena Malkki Brobjerg, Opera singer, Sweden;

Georges Bériachvili, Pianist, Musicologist, France;

Jacques Pauwels, Historian, Canada;

C. FROM AFGHAN AUTHORITIES

Sher Mohammad Abbas Stanikzai, Deputy Foreign Minister, Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA);

Mawlawi Muhibullah Wasiq, Head of Foreign Minister’s Office, IEA;

Waliwullah Shahin, Member of Ministry of Foreign Affairs, IEA;

Sayedull Afghani, Member of Ministry of Foreign Affairs, IEA;

Hekmatullah Zaland, Member of Ministry of Foreign Affairs, IEA;

Shafi Azam, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, IEA;

Atiqullah Azizi, Deputy Minister of Culture and Art, Ministry of Information and Culture, IEA;

Ghorzang Farhand, Ministry of Information and Culture, IEA;

Ghulam Dastgir Khawari, Advisor of Ministry of Higher Education, IEA;

Mawlawi Rahmat Kaka Zadah, Member of ministry of Interior Affairs, IEA;

Mawlawi Arefullah, Member of Interior Affairs, IEA;

Ataullah Omari, Acting Agriculture Minister, IEA;

Mawlawi Hussain Ahmad, Head of office in Ministry of Agriculture, IEA:

Musa Noorzai, Member of Ministry of Agriculture, IEA;

Mawlawi Hussain Ahmad, Head of office, Ministry of Agriculture, IEA;

Mawlawi Shar Aqa, Head of Kunar Agriculture Administration, IEA;

Matiulah Mujadidi, Head of Communication of Ministry of Finance, IEA;

Zabiullah Noori, Executive Manager, Ministry of Finance, IEA;

Akbar Wazizi, Member of Ministry of Finance, IEA;

Nasrullah Ebrahimi, Auditor, Ministry of Finance, IEA;

Mir M. Haroon Noori, Representative, Ministry of Economy, IEA;

Abdul Qahar Mahmodi, Ministry of Commerce, IEA;

Dr. Ghulam Farooq Azam, Adviser, Ministry of Water & Energy (MoWE), IEA;

Faisal Mahmoodi, Investment Facilitation Expert, Ministry of Mines and Petroleum, IEA;

Rustam Hafiz Yar, Ministry of Transportation, IEA;

Qudratullah Abu Hamza, Governor of Kunar, IEA;

Mansor Faryabi, Member of Kabul Municipality, IEA;

Mohammad Sediq Patman, Former Deputy Minister of Education for Academic Affairs, IEA;

COMPLEMENTARY LIST

A. FROM AFGHANS

  • Jawad Nikzad, Ibn-e-Sina R&D Centre, Kabul, Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Akram Azimi, Ibn-e-Sina R&D Centre, Kabul, Afghanistan ;
  • Najibullah Totakhel, Ibn-e-Sina R&D Centre, Germany 
  • Ghulam Farooq Ansari, Professor, Ibn-e-Sina R&D Centre, Kabul, Afghanistan ;
  • Imran Zakeria, Researcher at Regional Studies Center, Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan, Ibn Sina R&D Centre, Kabul, Afghanistan ;
  • Subhanullah Obaidi, Doctor, Ibn-e-Sina R&D Centre, Germany ;
  • Ali Shabeez, Ibn-e-Sina R&D Centre, Kabul, Germany ;
  • Mawlawi Wahid Ameen, Ibn-e-Sina R&D Centre, Kabul, Afghanistan ;
  • Shar M. Amir Zadah, Ibne-eSina R&D Centre, Kabul, Afghanistan ;
  • Sayed Rafiullah Halim, Professor, Ibn-e-Sina R&D Centre, Kabul Afghanistan ;
  • Nazar Mohmmad Ragheb, Ibn-e-Sina R&D Centre, Kabul, Afghanistan ;
  • Ali Sina Masoumi, Ibn-e-Sina R&D Centre Kabul, Afghanistan ;
  • Faisal Mahmoodi, Ibn-e-Sina R&D Centre, Kabul, Afghanistan ;
  • Fatima Basir, Ibn-e-Sina R&D Centre, Kabul, Afghanistan ;
  • Muneera Aman, Ibn-e-Sina R&D Centre, Kabul, Afghanistan ;
  • Abdul Shakoor, Ibn-e-Sina R&D Centre, Kabul, Afghanistan ;
  • Abdul Waris Ebad, Employee of Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Afghanistan ;
  • Waisullah Sediqi, Ibn-e-Sina R&D Centre, Kabul, Afghanistan ;
  • Sayed Hakim Aria, Employee of Ministry of Information and Culture, Afghanistan ;
  • Nayebuddin Ekrami, Employee of Ministry of information and Culture, Afghanistan ;
  • Latifa Azimi, Former Employee of Ministry of Education, Afghanistan ;
  • Latifa Noori, Former Employee of Ministry of Education, Afghanistan ;
  • Habibullah Haqani, Employee of Kabul Municipality, Afghanistan ;
  • Shafiqullah Baburzai, Cultural Heritage, Afghanistan ;
  • Abdullah Kamawal, Cultural Heritage, Afghanistan ;
  • Abdul Rashid Lodin, Cultural Heritage, Afghanistan ;
  • Asef Nang, Cultural Heritage, Afghanistan ;
  • Awal Khan Shekib, Member of Afghanistan Regional Studies Center, Afghanistan ;
  • Mohammad Anwar Fayaz, Lecturer, Afghanistan Science Academy, Afghanistan ;
  • Farhad Ahmadi, Lecturer, Afghanistan Science Academy, Afghanistan ;
  • Fayqa Lahza Faizi, Lecturer, Afghanistan Science Academy, Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Hakim Haidar, Lecturer, Afghanistan Science Academy, Afghanistan ;
  • Rahimullah Harifal, Lecturer, Afghanistan Science Academy, Afghanistan ;
  • Sharifullah Dost, Lecturer, Afghanistan Science Academy, Afghanistan ;
  • Eshaq Momand, Lecturer, Afghanistan Science Academy, Afghanistan ;
  • Khalil Rahman Barekzal, Lecturer, Afghanistan Science Academy, Afghanistan ;
  • Ghulam Haidar Kushkaki, Lecturer, Afghanistan Science Academy, Afghanistan ;
  • Ghulam Nabi Hanifi, Lecturer, Afghanistan Science Academy, Afghanistan ;
  • Marina Bahar, Lecturer, Afghanistan Science Academy, Afghanistan ;
  • Sayed Muhaidin Hashimi, Lecturer, Afghanistan Science Academy, Afghanistan ;
  • Abdul Majid Nadim, Lecturer, Afghanistan Science Academy, Afghanistan ;
  • Elaha Maqsoodi, Lecturer, Afghanistan Science Academy, Afghanistan ;
  • Khadim Ahmad Haqiqi, Lecturer, Afghanistan Science Academy, Afghanistan ;
  • Shahidullah Safi, Member, Afghanistan Science Academy, Afghanistan ;
  • Abdul Wahab Hamdard, Member, Afghanistan Science Academy, Afghanistan ;
  • Burhanullah Niazi, Member, Afghanistan Science Academy, Afghanistan ;
  • M. Alam Eshaq Zai, Member, Afghanistan Science Academy, Afghanistan ;
  • Ghulam Hasan Farmand, Member, Afghanistan Science Academy, Afghanistan ;
  • Zalmai Hewad Mal, Member, Afghanistan Science Academy, Afghanistan ;
  • Abdul Rahman Atash, Head of Afghanistan National Development Company (NDC), Afghanistan ;
  • Obaidullah, Head of Public Library, Afghanistan ;
  • Sayed Abdul Maqdam, Head of Khawar construction company, Afghanistan ;
  • Zaki Zarifi, Head of Zarifi company, Afghanistan ;
  • Jamshid Faizi, Head of Faizi company, Afghanistan ;
  • M. Yasin Farahman, Head of Agriculture Center, Afghanistan ;
  • Mawlawi Nik M. Nikmal, Head of Planning in Technical Administration, Afghanistan ;
  • Abdul Wahid Rahimi, Member of Bashtani Bank, Afghanistan ;
  • M. Daud Mangal, Head of Ariana Afghan Airlines, Afghanistan ;
  • Mostafa Yari, entrepreneur, Afghanistan;
  • Gharwal Roshan, Head of Kabul International Airfield, Afghanistan ;
  • Eqbal Mirzad, Head of New Kabul City Project, Afghanistan ;
  • Najibullah Sadiq, Vice-president of Afghan Chamber of Commerce and Indunstry (ACCI), Afghanistan;
  • M. Yunis Mohmand, Vice-president of ACCI, Afghanistan;
  • Khanjan Alikozai, Member of ACCI, Afghanistan;
  • Mawlawi Abdul Rashid, Kabul Municipality, Afghanistan ;
  • Atiqullah Safi, Employee of Kabul Municipality, Afghanistan ;
  • Abdul Jalil Safi, Employee of Kabul Municipality, Afghanistan ;
  • Hujat Fazli, Head of Harakat, Afghanistan Investment Climate Facility Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Mehrab Hamidi, Member of Economical Commission, Afghanistan;
  • Hamid Pazhwak, Economist, Afghanistan ;
  • M. Awaz Ali Alizai, Economist, Afghanistan ;
  • Shamshad Omar, Economist, Afghanistan ;
  • Helai Fahang, Economy Specialist, Afghanistan ;
  • Maryam Alikozai, Economy Specialist, Afghanistan ;
  • Dunya Farooz, Economy Specialist, Afghanistan ;
  • Soman Khamoosh, Economy Specialist, Afghanistan ;
  • Drs. Shokoria Yousofi, Bachelor of Economy, Afghanistan;
  • Sharifa Wardak, Specialist of Agriculture, Afghanistan;
  • M. Asef Dawlat Shahi, Specialist of Chemistry, Afghanistan;
  • Pashtana Hamami, Specialist of Statistics, Afghanistan;
  • Asma Karimi, Master of Management, Afghanistan;
  • Dr. Ahmad Zaki Afghanyar, Vice-President of Herat Health committee, Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Hashem Mudaber, Medical Doctor, Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Hekmatullah Arian, Medical Doctor, Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Abdul Wahab Rahmani, Medical Doctor, Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Karima Rahimyar, Medical Doctor, Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Sayeeda Basiri, Medical Doctor, Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Emran Sayeedi, Medical Doctor, Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Abdul Hadi Dawlatzai, Medical Doctor, Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Ghani Naseri, Medical Doctor, Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Nafisa Naseri, Medical Doctor, Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Abdul Ghani Naseri, Medical Doctor, Afghanistan;
  • Dr. Mohammad Younis Shouaib, Medical Doctor, Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Halima Akbari, Medical Doctor, Afghanistan;
  • Dr. Manizha Emaq, Medical Doctor, Afghanistan;
  • Dr. Shafiq Shinwari, Medical Doctor, Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Akbar Jan Foolad, Medical Doctor, Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Haidar Omar, Medical Doctor, Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Ehsanuddin Ehsan, Medical Doctor, Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Abdul Wakil Matin, Medical Doctor, Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Abdul Matalib, Medical Doctor, Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Azizi Amer, Medical Doctor, Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Nasr Sajar, Medical Doctor, Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Humayon Hemat, Medical Doctor, Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Humaira Fayaq, Medical Doctor, Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Sadruddin Tajik, Medical Doctor, Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Abdul Baqi Ahmad Zai, Surgery Specialist, Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Beqis Kohistani, Medical Doctor, Afghanistan;
  • Dr. Nafisa Nasiri, Medical Doctor, Afghanistan;
  • Dr. Aziza Yousuf, Head of Malalai Hospital, Afghanistan;
  • Dr. Yasamin Hashimi, Medical Doctor, Afghanistan;
  • Dr. Zuhal Najimi, Medical Doctor, Afghanistan;
  • Dr. Ahmad Salem Sedeqi, Medical Doctor, Afghanistan;
  • Dr. Fazel Raman, veterinary, Afghanistan;
  • Khatera Anwary, Health, Afghanistan;
  • Rajina Noori, Member of Afghanistan Journalists Union, Afghanistan ;
  • Sajad Nikzad, Journalist, Afghanistan ;
  • Ahmad Suhaib Hasrat, Journalist, Afghanistan ;
  • Shar Aqa Karimi, Journalist, Afghanistan ;
  • Sayed Mohammad Suhrabi , Journalist, Afghanistan ;
  • Mohammad Nasir Kuhzad, Journalist and Political Analyst, Afghanistan ;
  • Fazel Menallah, Political Analyst, Afghanistan;
  • M. Wahid Benish, Political Analyst, Afghanistan ;
  • Mahmood Jan Shafizada, Political Analyst, Afghanistan ;
  • Fazel Rahman Orya, Political Analyst, Afghanistan ;
  • Zarghon Shah Shinwari, Political Analyst, Afghanistan ;
  • Abdul Ghafor Shinwari, Political Analyst, Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Ahmad Yousufi, Dean, Kateb University, Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Yayia Balaghat, Scientific Vice-President, Kateb University, Afghanistan ;
  • Chaman Shah Etemadi, Head of Gharjistan University, Afghanistan;
  • Dr. Mesbah, Head of Salam University, Afghanistan;
  • Dr. Pirzad Ahmad Fawad, Kabul University;
  • Dr. Nasir Nawidi, Dean of a Private University, Afghanistan;
  • Zabiullah Fazli, Dean of a Private University, Afghanistan;
  • Ramish Adib, Vice of a Private University, Afghanistan;
  • M. Taloot Muahid, Dean of a Private University, Afghanistan;
  • Ebrahim Ansari, School Manager, Afghanistan;
  • Abas Ali Zimozai, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan ;
  • Arshad Rahimi, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan ;
  • Fasihuddin Fasihi, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan ;
  • Waisuddin Jawad, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan ;
  • M. Murtaza Sharzoi, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan ;
  • M. Matin Monis, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan ;
  • Mohammad Wahid Benish, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan ;
  • Hussian Iqbal, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan ;
  • Muhsin Reshad, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan ;
  • Mohammad Sadiq Baqori, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan ;
  • Mohammad Zahir Halimi, Univ. Lecturer , Afghanistan ;
  • Rohla Qurbani, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan ;
  • Murtaza Rezaee, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan ;
  • Ghulam Rasoul Qarluq, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan ;
  • Najim Wahidi, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan ;
  • M. Rashid Iqbal, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan ;
  • Abdul Rahman Matin, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan ;
  • M. Mujtaba Amin, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan ;
  • Amanullah Faqiri, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan ;
  • Abuzar Khpelwak Zazai, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan ;
  • Belal Tayab, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan ;
  • M. Adel Hakimi, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan ;
  • Wasiqullah Ghyas, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan ;
  • Faridduin Atar, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan ;
  • Safiullah Jawhar, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan ;
  • Amir Jan Saqib, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan ;
  • Ahmad Shekib Rahmani, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan ;
  • M. Gulzar Hashimi, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan ;
  • Taj Mohammad, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan;
  • Hekmatullah Mirzad, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan;
  • Abdul Haq Atid, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan ;
  • M. Fahim Momand, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan;
  • Ahmad Fawad Ehsas, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan;
  • Naqibullah Sediqi, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan;
  • Maiwand Wahidi, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan;
  • M. Nazir Hayati, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan;
  • Najiba Rahmani, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan;
  • Abeda Baba Karkhil, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan;
  • Dr. M. Qayoum Karim, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan;
  • Sayed Sharif Shabir, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan;
  • Ahmad Walid Howaida, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan;
  • Zalmai Rahib, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan;
  • Dr. Sadiq Baqori, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan;
  • Mir Zafaruddin Ansari, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan;
  • Atta Mohammad Alwak, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan;
  • Dr. Zabiullah Iqbal, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan;
  • Dr. Hasan Fazaili, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan;
  • M. Jawad Jalili, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan;
  • Mukhtar Ali Nasto, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan;
  • Namatullah Nabawi, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan;
  • Ghulam Abas Noori, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan;
  • Mustafa Anwari, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan;
  • Fakhria Popal, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan;
  • Shiba Sharzai, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan;
  • Marya Hashimi, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan;
  • Nilofar Hashimi, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan;
  • Munisa Hasan, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan;
  • Nazifa Azimi, Univ. Lecturer, Afghanistan;
  • Sweeta Sharify, Lecturer; Afghanistan;
  • Fayaz Gul, Lecturer, Afghanistan;
  • Zakia Ahmad Zai, Lecturer, Afghanistan;
  • Nigani Barati, Education Specialist, Afghanistan ;
  • Azeeta Nazhand, Teacher, Afghanistan ;
  • Sughra, Teacher, Afghanistan;
  • Nadia Sharif, Teacher, Afghanistan;
  • Maryam Omari, Teacher, Afghanistan;
  • Masoud, Teacher, Afghanistan;
  • Zubair Ahmad, Teacher, Afghanistan;
  • Khalil Ahmad, Teacher, Afghanistan;
  • Khadija Omid, Teacher, Afghanistan;
  • Haida Rasouli, Teacher, Afghanistan;
  • Hemat Hamad, Teacher, Afghanistan ;
  • Wazir Safi, Teacher, Afghanistan ;
  • Mohammad Qasim, Teacher, Afghanistan ;
  • Zamin Shah, Teacher, Afghanistan ;
  • Sayed Qayas, Teacher, Afghanistan ;
  • Mehrabuddin, Teacher, Afghanistan ;
  • Zahidullah Zahid, Teacher, Afghanistan ;
  • Akmal Mahros, Teacher, Afghanistan ;
  • Sadia Mohammadi, Teacher, Afghanistan;
  • Mina Amiri, Teacher, Afghanistan;
  • M. Sajad Nikzad, Teacher, Afghanistan ;
  • Mursal Nikzad, Teacher, Afghanistan ;
  • Abdul Qadir Shahab, Teacher, Afghanistan;
  • M. Hasan Sahi, Teacher, Afghanistan ;
  • Mirwais Haqmal, Teacher, Afghanistan ;
  • Leeda Khurasai, Teacher, Afghanistan ;
  • Karishma Hashimi, Instructor, Afghanistan;
  • Majeed Shams, Architect, Afghanistan;
  • Azimullah Esmati, Master of Civil Engineering, Afghanistan;
  • Najibullah Hussaini, Engineer, Afghanistan ;
  • Burhanuddin Nezami, Engineer, Afghanistan ;
  • Abdul Hafiz Hafizi, Engineer, Afghanistan ;
  • Bahir, Engineer, Afghanistan;
  • Wali Bayan, Engineer, Afghanistan;
  • Abdul Khaliq Najir, Engineer, Afghanistan;
  • Diana Niazi, Engineer, Afghanistan;
  • Imam Jan, Engineer, Afghanistan ;
  • Khalil Ahmad Nadem, Engineer, Afghanistan;
  • Sayeed Aqa, Engineer, Afghanistan ;
  • Edris Rasouli, Engineer, Afghanistan ;
  • Raz Mohammad, Engineer of Mines, Afghanistan ;
  • Nasrullah Rahimi, Technical Engineer, Afghanistan ;
  • Ehsanullah, Helmand, Construction Engineer, Netherlands;
  • Ahmad Hamad, Technologist, Afghanistan ;
  • Akmal Ahmadi, Technologist, Afghanistan ;
  • Ershad Hurmati, Technologist, Afghanistan ;
  • M. Akram Shafim, Technologist, Afghanistan ;
  • M. Akbar Ehsan, Technologist, Afghanistan ;
  • Raziullah, Technologist, Afghanistan ;
  • Zaki Khorrami, IT Officer, Afghanistan ;
  • Osman Nikzad, Graphic Designer, Afghanistan ;
  • Maryam Ayani, Carpet Weaver, Afghanistan ;
  • Be be sima Hashimi, Tailor, Afghanistan ;
  • Maryam Masoumi, Tailor, Afghanistan ;
  • Roya Mohammadi, Craftsman, Afghanistan ;
  • Nadia Sayes, Craftsman, Afghanistan ;
  • Nazdana Ebad, Craftsman, Afghanistan ;
  • Sima Ahmadi , Bachelor of Biology, Afghanistan;
  • Sima Rasouli, Merchant, Afghanistan ;
  • Khatera Nawabi, Merchant, Afghanistan ;
  • Haji Noor Agha Haqyar, Merchant, Afghanstan;
  • Husna Anwari, Merchant, Afghanistan ;
  • Nargis Hashimi, Merchant, Afghanistan ;
  • Shakira Barish, Merchant, Afghanistan ;
  • Nasima Darwish, Merchant, Afghanistan ;
  • Wajiha Haidari, Merchant of Jawzjan, Afghanistan ;
  • Shagul, Merchant, Afghanistan ;
  • Fatima Nik Rasoul, Merchant, Afghanistan ;
  • Haji Farid Alikozai, Merchant, Afghanistan;
  • Nigina Nawabi, Merchant, Afghanistan ;
  • Masouda Nazimi, Merchant, Afghanistan ;
  • Najla Kohistani, Merchant, Afghanistan ;
  • Kerisma Jawhari, Merchant, Afghanistan ;
  • Hasina Hashimi, Merchant, Afghanistan ;
  • Husna Anwari, Merchant, Afghanistan ;
  • Maaz Baburzai, Merchant, Afghanistan ;
  • Freshta Safari, Merchant, Afghanistan;
  • Yalda Azimi, Merchant, Afghanistan ;
  • Azim Jan Baba Karkhil, Merchant, Afghanistan ;
  • Akhtar Mohammad, Merchant, Afghanistan ;
  • M. Haroon Ahmadzai, Merchant, Afghanistan ;
  • Azizullah Faizi, Former head of Afghanistan Cricket Board, Afghanistan ;
  • Wakil Akhar, Prosecutor, Afghanistan ;
  • Akhtar M. Azimi, Prosecutor, Afghanistan;
  • Shabnam Noori, Prosecutor, Afghanistan;
  • Be be Abeda Wayar, Prosecutor, Afghanistan;
  • Madina Ahmad Zai, Prosecutor, Afghanistan;
  • Shakila Joya, Former Employee of Attorney General, Afghanistan;
  • Sardar M. Akbar Bashash, Member, Afghanistan Balochs Union, Afghanistan ;
  • Eng. Abdul Dayan Balouch, Spokesperson of Afghanistan Balochs Union, Afghanistan ;
  • Shah Mahmood Lahoti, Member of Afghanistan Balochs Union, Afghanistan ;
  • Abdul Khaliq Barekzai, Advisor, Afghanistan Balochs Union, Afghanistan ;
  • Salahuddin Ayoubi Balouch, Advisor, Afghanistan Balochs Union, Afghanistan ;
  • Faizuddin Lashkari Balouch, Member, Afghanistan Balochs Union, Afghanistan ;
  • Sayed Ishaq Gilani, head of the National Solidarity Movement of Afghanistan, IEA;
  • Haji Zalmai Latifi, Representative, Qizilbash tribes, Afghanistan ;
  • Gul Nabi Ahmad Zai, Former Commander of Kabul Garrison, Afghanistan ;
  • Ghulam Hussain Rezaee, Member, Habitat Organization, Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Amani Adiba, Doctor of Liberal Arts in Architecture and Urban Planning, Afghanistan;
  • Ismael Paienda, Afghan Peace Activist, France;
  • Mohammad Belal Rahimi, Head of Peace institution, Afghanistan ;
  • M. Mushtaq Hanafi, Head of Sayadan council, Afghanistan ;
  • Sabira Waizi, Founder of T.W.P.S., Afghanistan ;
  • Majabin Sharifi, Member of Women Network Organization, Afghanistan;
  • Shekiba Saadat, Former head of women affairs, Afghanistan ;
  • Atya Salik, Women rights activist, Afghanistan ;
  • Fatima Mahmoodi, Women rights activist, Afghanistan;
  • Diana Rohin, Women rights activist , Afghanistan;
  • Amena Hashimi, Head of Women Organization, Afghanistan;
  • Fatanh Sharif, Former employee of Gender equality, Afghanistan;
  • Sediq Mansour Ansari, Civil Activist, Afghanistan ;
  • Sebghatullah Najibi, Civil Activist, Afghanistan ;
  • Naemullah Nasiri, Civil Activist, Afghanistan;
  • Reha Ramazani, Civil Activist, Afghanistan ;
  • Lia Jawad, Civil Activist, Afghanistan;
  • Arezo Khurasani, Social Activist, Afghanistan ;
  • Beheshta Bairn, Social Activist, Afghanistan;
  • Samsama Haidari, Social Activist, Afghanistan;
  • Shabnam Nikzad, Humans Rights Activist, Afghanistan;
  • Mliha Sadiqi, Head of Young Development Organization, Afghanistan;
  • Mehria, Sharify, University Student;
  • Shiba Azimi, Member of IPSO Organization, Afghanistan;
  • Nadira Rashidi, Master of Management, Afghanistan;
  • Sefatullah Atayee, Banking, Afghanistan;
  • Khatira Yousufi, Employee of RTA, Afghanistan;
  • Yalda Mirzad , Employee of Breshna Company, Afghanistan;
  • Izzatullah Sherzad, Employee, Afghanistan;
  • Erfanullah Salamzai , Afghanistan;
  • Naser Abdul Rahim Khil, Afghanistan;
  • Ghulam Rasoul Faizi, Afghanistan;
  • Dr. Mir Agha Hasan Khil, Afghanistan;
  • Abdul Ghafor Muradi, Afghanistan;
  • Gul M. Azhir, Afghanistan;
  • Gul Ahmad Zahiryan, Afghanistan;
  • Shamsul Rahman Shams, Afghanistan;
  • Khaliq Stanekzai, Afghanistan;
  • M. Daud Haidari, Afghanistan;
  • Marhaba Subhani, Afghanistan;
  • Maazullah Nasim, Afghanistan;
  • Haji Mohammad Tayeb, Afghanistan;
  • Ali Sina Masoumi, Afghanistan ;
  • Sweeta Sadiqi Hotak, Afghanistan ;
  • Khatira Anwari, Afghanistan ;
  • Fatima Sharzad, Afghanistan ; Momen Shah Kakar, Afghanistan ;
  • Shah Rukh Raufi, Afghanistan ;
  • Hanifa Rasouli, Kabul, Afghanistan ;
  • Qudsia Ebrahimi, Afghanistan ;
  • Mahmood Haqiqat, Afghanistan ;
  • Nasir Abdul Rahim Khan, Kabul, Afghanistan ;
  • Abdul Hamid Ahmadzai, Afghanistan ;
  • Sardar Khan Sirat, Afghanistan ;
  • Zurmatullah Ahmadi, Afghanistan ;
  • Yasar Khogyani, Afghanistan ;
  • Shar Sha Lodi, Afghanistan ;
  • Ahmad Shah Omar, Afghanistan ;
  • M. Azam Khan Ahmad Zai, Afghanistan;
  • Nadia Farooq Sharzoi, Afghanistan;
  • Shar Ali Tazari, Afghanistan ;
  • Mayel Aqa Hakim, Afghanistan ;
  • Khatira Hesar, Afghanistan ;
  • Tamim Mehraban, Afghanistan ;
  • Lina Noori, Afghanistan ;
  • Khubaib Ghufran, Afghanistan ;
  • M. Yasin Farahmand, Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Mir M. Ayoubi, Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Namatullah Nabawi, Afghanistan ;
  • Abozar Zazai, Afghanistan ;
  • Atiqullah Rahimi, Afghanistan ;
  • Fahim Ahmad Sultan, Afghanistan ;
  • Humaira Farhangyar, Afghanistan ;
  • Imam M. Wrimaj, Afghanistan ;
  • Masoud Ashna, Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Yahia Baiza, Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Besmila, Afghanistan ;
  • Ehsan Shorish, Germany;
  • Irshad, Omer, Afghanistan;
  • Musa Noorzai, Afghanistan;
  • Lida Noori Nazhand, Afghanistan;
  • Dr. Abdul Masood Panah, Afghanistan;
  • Gholam Sachi Hassanzadah, Afghanistan;
  • Dr. Sayed Ali Eqbal, Afghanistan;
  • Hashmatullah Atmar, Afghanistan;
  • Ahmad Matin Safi, Afghanistan;
  • Ahmad Helmand, Afghanistan;
  • Ehsanullah Helmand, Afghanistan;
  • Izazatullah Sherzad, Afghanistan;
  • Hafizullah Omarzai, Afghanistan;
  • Hedayatullah Hilal, Afghanistan;
  • Edris Ramez, student, Afghanistan;
  • Amina Saadaty, Afghanistan;
  • Muska Hamidi, Afghanistan;
  • Raihana Ahmadi, Afghanistan;
  • Zuhal Sherzad, Afghanistan;
  • Meelad Ahmad, Afghanistan;
  • Devah Kubra Falcone, Germany;
  • Maryam Baburi, Germany;
  • Suraya Paikan, Afghanistan;
  • Abdul Fatah Ahmadzai, Afghanistan ;
  • Dr. Mohammad Zalmai, Afghanistan ;
  • Hashmatullah Parwarni, Afghanistan ;
  • Asadullah, Afghanistan;
  • Hedayat ullah Hillal, Afghanistan;
  • Najibullah Zazai, Afghanistan;
  • M. Yousuf Ahmadi, Afghanistan;
  • Ahmad Reshad Reka, Afghanistan;
  • Sayed Ahmad Arghandiwal, Afghanistan;
  • Nooria Noozai, Afghanistan;
  • Eng. Fahim Osmani, Afghanistan;
  • Wafiullah Maaraj, Afghanistan;
  • Roya Shujaee, Afghanistan;
  • Shakira Shujaee, Afghanistan ;
  • Adina Ranjbar, Afghanistan;
  • Ayesha Shafiq, Afghanistan;
  • Hajira Mujadidi, Afghanistan ;
  • Abdul Zahir Shekib, Afghanistan;
  • Zuhra Mohammad Zai, Afghanistan;
  • Razia Ghaws, Afghanistan;
  • Abdul Sabor Mubariz, Afghanistan;
  • Abdul Khaliq Ferdows, Afghanistan;
  • Abdul Shakoor Salangi, Afghanistan;
  • Nasir Ahmad Basharyar, Afghanistan;
  • Mohammad Mukhtar Sharifi, Afghanistan;
  • Mukhtar Ahmad Haqtash, Afghanistan;
  • Yousuf Amin Zazai, Afghanistan;
  • Zakiri Sahib, Afghanistan;
  • Mirwais Ghafori, Afghanistan;
  • Nesar Rahmani, Afghanistan;
  • Shar M. Amir Zadah, Afghanistan;
  • Yasin Farahmand, Afghanistan;
  • Faizul Haq Faizan, Afghanistan;
  • Khaibar Sarwary, Afghanistan;
  • Ali Sina Masoumi, Afghanistan;
  • Hamidullah Akhund Zadah, Afghanistan;
  • Dr. Benish, Afghanistan;
  • Hayatullah Fazel, Afghanistan;
  • Faizullah Habibi, Afghanistan;
  • Abdul Hamid Lyan, Afghanistan;
  • Abdul Qayoum Qayoum Zadah, Afghanistan;
  • Qazi Qudratullah Safi, Afghanistan;
  • Noor Agha Haqyar, Afghanistan;
  • Maryan Aiany, Afghanistan;

B. FROM ABROAD

  • Odile Mojon, Schiller Institute, Paris, France ;
  • Johanna Clerc, Choir Conductor, Schiller Institute Chorus, France ;
  • Sébastien Perimony, Africa Department, Schiller Institute, France ;
  • Christine Bierre, Journalist, Chief Editor of Nouvelle Solidarité, monthly, France ;
  • Marcia Merry Baker, agriculture expert, EIR, Co-Editor, USA ;
  • Bob Van Hee,Redwood County Minnesota Commissioner, USA ;
  • Dr. Tarik Vardag, Doctor in Natural Sciences (RER), Business Owner, Germany;
  • Richard Freeman, Department of Physical Economy, Schiller Institute, USA ;
  • Liliana Gorini, chairwoman of Movisol and singer, Italy;
  • Ulrike Lillge,Editor Ibykus Magazine, Berlin, Germany ;
  • Michelle Rasmussen, Vice President, Schiller Institute in Denmark, amateur musician;
  • Feride Istogu Gillesberg, Vice President, Schiller Institute in Denmark;
  • Jason Ross, Science Department, Schiller Institute, USA ;
  • Dennis Small, Director of the Economic Department, Schiller Institute, USA ;
  • Robert “Bob” Baker, Agriculture Commission, Schiller Institute, USA ;
  • Dr. Wolfgang Lillge, Medical Doctor, Editor, Fusion Magazine, Berlin, Germany ;
  • Ulf Sandmark, Vice-Chairman of the Belt and Road Institute, Sweden ;
  • Mary Jane Freeman, Schiller Institute, USA ;
  • Hussein Askary, South West Asia Coordinator, Schiller Institute, Sweden ;
  • David Dobrodt, EIR News, USA ;
  • Klaus Fimmen, 2nd Vice-Chairman of the Bürgerrechtsbewegung Solidarität (Büso) party, Germany;
  • Christophe Lamotte, Consulting Engineer, France ;
  • Richard Burden, EIR production staff, USA ;
  • Rolf Gerdes, Electronic Engineer, Germany;
  • Marcella Skinner, USA ;
  • Delaveau Mathieu, Farm Worker, France ;
  • Shekeba Jentsch, StayIN, Board, Germany;
  • Bernard Carail, retired Postal Worker, France ;
  • Etienne Dreyfus, Social Activist, France ;
  • Harrison Elfrink, Social Activist, USA ;
  • Jason Seidmann,USA ;

Merci de partager !

Horse-power, the Earthly Science behind China’s “Heavenly Horses”

« Horse Riding on a Flying Bird » (hoof on a swallow or other bird…). This bronze statue of the Gansu Museum is a perfect combination of strength and beauty, both thrilling and stunning. According to Chinese historians, it embodies the majestic, strenuous, bold and enterprising national spirit.

The history of mankind completely changed with the domestication of the horse. Things considered “impossible” before the domestication of the horse became the “new normal”. How and when horses became domesticated has been disputed. Although horses appear in Paleolithic cave art as early as 36,000 BC (Chauvet cave, France), these were wild horses and were probably hunted for meat.

Grotte Chauvet, France.

Zoologists define « domestication » as human control over breeding, which can be detected in ancient skeletal samples by changes in the size and variability of ancient horse populations. Other researchers look at the broader evidence, including skeletal and dental evidence of working activity; weapons, art, and spiritual artifacts; and lifestyle patterns of human cultures. There is evidence that horses were kept as a source of meat and milk before they were trained as working animals.

Bhimbetka Rock Shelters, India.

In India, close to Bopal, the “Bhimbetka rock shelters”, which are the oldest known rock art of the country, figures dance and hunting scenes from the Stone Age as well as of warriors on horseback from a later time (10 000 BC).

Horses were a late addition to the barnyard. Dogs were domesticated 15,000 years ago; sheep, pigs and cattle, about 8,000 to 11,000 years ago. But clear evidence of horse domestication doesn’t appear in the archaeological record until about 5,500 years ago.

Aechemenid, Vth Century BC.

The clearest evidence of early use of the horse as a means of transport is from chariot burials. The earliest true chariots known are from around 2,000 BC, in burials of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture in modern Russia in a cluster along the upper Tobol river, southeast of Magnitogorsk.

They contain spoke-wheeled chariots drawn by teams of two horses.

Kazakhstan and Ukraine

Przewalkski horse.

Up till recently, it was thought that the most common horse used today was a descendant of the horses domesticated by the Botai culture living in the steppes of the Akmola Province of Kazakhstan, around 3500 BC.

Recent genetic research points to the fact that the Botai horses were the forefathers of the Przewalski horse, a species that nearly disappeared.

Our common horse, the Equus ferus caballus, genetic research says, has been domesticated 4,200 years ago in Ukraine, in an area known as the Volga-Don, in the Pontic-Caspian steppe region of Western Eurasia, around 2,200 BC.

As these horses were domesticated, they were regularly interbred with wild horses.

Interesting in this respect, is the fact that according to the Kurgan” or “steppe hypothesis”, most Indo-European languages spread from the same region throughout Europe and parts of Asia.

It postulates that the people of a Kurgan culture in the Pontic steppe north of the Black Sea were the most likely speakers of what some call the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE).

The term is derived from the Turkic word kurgan, meaning tumulus or burial mound.

Tea Road, Horse Road or Silk Road?

Von Richthofen.

As a matter of fact, the main commodities traded on the “Silk Road” (a term only coined in 1877 by the German geographer Ferdinand Von Richthofen), were… horses, mules, camels, donkeys and onagers.

Silk and tea were of course traded, but appeared mainly as a means… to pay for horses. People “paid” with silk, gold, porcelain and tea, the animals they needed to secure the survival of their society!

What was known as the « Tea-Horse Road » (Southern Silk Road) extended from the city of Chengdu in Sichuan Province, China, south through Yunnan into India and the Indochina Peninsula, and extended westwards into Tibet. It was an important route for the tea trade throughout South China and Southeast Asia and contributed to the spread of religions like Taoism and Buddhism across the region.

Eurasian Steppe

Eurasian Steppe and grassland.

China, feeling itself under constant threat from the nomadic steppe people from the North, started building the first parts of its “Great Wall” as early as the VIIth Century BC, with selective stretches joined by Qin Shi Huang (220–206 BC), the first emperor of China and completed under the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) to become one of the most impressive feats in history.

The Eurasian nomads were groups of nomadic peoples living throughout the Eurasian Steppe. The generic title encompasses the varied ethnic groups who have at times inhabited the steppes of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Mongolia, Russia, and Ukraine.

By the domestication of the horse around 2,200 BC (i.e. 4,200 years ago), they vastly increased the possibilities of nomadic life and subsequently their economy and culture emphasized horse breeding, horse riding, and nomadic pastoralism, usually engaging in trade with settled peoples around the steppe edges, be it in Europe, Asia or Central Asia.

Nomads, by definition, don’t create empires. It is thought they operated often as confederations. But it was them who developed the chariot, wagon, cavalry, and horseback archery and introduced innovations such as the bridle, bit, stirrup, and saddle and the very rapid rate at which innovations crossed the steppe-lands spread these widely, to be copied by settled peoples bordering the steppes.

During the Iron Age, Scythian (Persian) culture emerged among the Eurasian nomads, which was characterized by a distinct Scythian art.

China and the Horse

Throughout China’s long and storied past, no animal has impacted its history as greatly as the horse. Its significance was such that as early as the Shang dynasty (ca.1600-1100 BC), military might was measured by the number of the war chariots available to a particular kingdom.

The mounted cavalery, which emerged in the IIIrd century BC grew rapidly during the IInd century BC to meet the challenge of horse-riding peoples threatening China along the northern frontier.

Their large, powerful, horses were very new to China. As said before, traded for luxurious silk, they were the first major import to China from the “Silk Road.”

Chinese grave goods provide extraordinary amounts of information about how the ancient Chinese lived. Archaeological evidence shows that within a few years, the marvelous Arabian steeds had become immensely popular with military and aristocracy alike and upper-class tombs began to be filled with images of these great horses for use in the afterlife. But horses were hard to find in China.

Chinese diplomats and the Kingdom of Dayuan (Ferghana)

Zhang Qian taking leave from Emperor Wu in 138 BCE, Mogao Caves mural from circa 8th century AD.

Something had to be done. In the late IInd Century BC, Zhang Qian, a Han dynasty diplomat and explorer, travels to Central Asia and discovers three sophisticated urban civilizations created by Greek settlers he named « Ionians ». The account of his visit to Bactria, including his recollection of his amazement at finding Chinese goods in the markets (acquired via India), as well as his travels to Parthia and Ferghana, are preserved in the works of the early Han historian Sima Qian.

A tourist takes photos of a roadmap showing Zhang Qian’s second trip to the West at the Tomb of Zhang Qian in Chenggu county of Hanzhong, Northwest China’s Shaanxi province, June 21, 2014.

Upon returning to China, his account prompts the Emperor to dispatch Chinese envoys across Central Asia to negotiate and encourage trade with China. Some historians say that this dicision gave « birth of the Silk Road.«  

Besides Parthia and Bactria, where Chinese goods were being traded via Indian imports, Zhang Qian visited, in the fertile Ferghana valley (today essentially in Tajikistan), a State the Chinese called the “Kingdom of Dayuan” (“Da” meaning “great”, and “Yuan” being the transliteration of Sanskrit Yavana or Pali Yona, used throughout antiquity in Asia to designate « Ionians », i.e. Greek settlers).

The Records of the Grand Historian and the Book of Han describe the Dayuan as numbering several hundred thousand people living in 70 walled cities of varying size. They grew rice and wheat, and made wine from grapes. They had Caucasian features and “customs identical to those of Bactria (the most Hellenistic state of the region since Alexander the Great) which is today’s northern Afghanistan.

The Chinese diplomat reported something of great strategic interest: unbelievable, fast and powerful horses raised by these Ionians in the Ferghana Valley!

Now, as said before, China felt under permanent threat by the nomadic people from the steppes and was in the process of building the “Great Wall”. China also was acutely aware that the nomadic steppe people derived their military superiority from something dramatically lacking at home: powerful horses !

Added to that, the fact that in terms of China’s scale of values, horses where nearly of the same mythological nature as dragons: they could fly and represented the divine, creative spirit of the universe itself, something essential for any Chinese emperor eager to acquire both military security for his Empire and for his personal immortality.

In short, having good horses became an issue of national security. So much, that in 100 BC, the Han dynasty started what is known as the “War of the Heavenly Horses” with Dayuan, when its ruler refused to provide high quality horses to China !

The War of the Heavenly Horses

The War of the Heavenly Horses was a military conflict fought in 104 BC and 102 BC between China and a part of the Saka-ruled (Scythian) Greco-Bactrian kingdom known to the Chinese as Dayuan, in the Ferghana Valley (between modern-day Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan).

First, Emperor Wu decided to defeat the nomadic steppe Xiongnu, who had harassed the Han dynasty for decades.

As said earlier, in 139 BC, the emperor sent diplomat Zhang Qian to survey the west and forge a military alliance with the Yuezhi nomads against another group of nomads, the Xiongnu. On the way to Central Asia through the Gobi desert, Zhang was captured twice. On his return, he impressed the emperor with his description of the « Heavenly Horses » of Dayuan, that could greatly improve the quality of Han cavalry mounts when fighting the Xiongnu.

The Han court sent at least five or six, and perhaps as many as ten diplomatic groups annually to Central Asia during this period to get a hold on these “Heavenly Horses”.

A trade mission arrived in Dayuan with 1000 pieces of gold and a golden horse to purchase these precious animals.

Dayuan, who was one of the furthest western states to send envoys to the Han court at that point, had already been trading with the Han for quite some time and benefited greatly from it. Not only were they overflowed by eastern goods, they also learned from Han soldiers how to cast metal into coins and weapons. However unlike the other envoys to the Han court, the ones from Dayuan did not conform to the proper Han rituals and behaved with great arrogance and self-assurance, believing they were too far away to be in any danger of invasion.

Hence, in a stroke of folly and taken by pure arrogance, the Dayuan king not only refused the deal, but confiscated the payment in gold. The Han envoys cursed the men of Dayuan and smashed the golden horse they had brought. Enraged by this act of contempt, the nobles of Dayuan ordered Yucheng, which lay on their eastern borders, to attack and kill the envoys and seize their goods.

Upon receiving word of the trade mission’s demise, humiliated and enraged, the Han court sent an army led by General Li Guangli to subdue Dayuan, but their first incursion was poorly organized and under-supplied.

A second, larger and much better provisioned expedition was sent two years later and successfully laid siege to the Dayuan capital at Alexandria Eschate, and forced Dayuan to surrender unconditionally.

General Li Guangli.

The Han expeditionary forces installed a pro-Han regime in Dayuan and left with 3,000 horses, although only 1,000 remained by the time they reached China in 101 BCE.

The Ferghana also agreed to send two Heavenly horses each year to the Emperor, and lucerne seed was brought back to China providing superior pasture for raising fine horses in China, to provide cavalry which could cope with the Xiongnu who threatened China.

The horses have since captured the popular imagination of China, leading to horse carvings, breeding grounds in Gansu, and up to 430,000 such horses in the cavalry during the Tang dynasty.

China and the agricultural revolution

After imposing its role in military strategy for the next centuries, horsepower, together with water management, became a crucial factor to raise the productivity of the world’s food production.

First, contrary to the Romans, who preferred to use “human cattle” (slaves) rather than animals (which they raised for race contests), the Chinese greatly contributed to the survival of mankind with two crucial innovations respecting a more efficient use of horse power.

As can be seen in murals and paintings, through the ancient world, be it in Egypt or Greece, plows and carts were pulled using animal harnesses that had flat straps across the neck of the horse, with the load attached at the top of the collar, above the neck, in a manner similar to a yoke used for oxen.

In reality, this greatly limited a horse’s ability to exert itself as it was constantly choked at the neck. The harder the horse pulled, the harder it became to breathe.

Due to this physical limitation, oxen remained the preferred animal to do heavy work such as plowing. Yet oxen are hard to maneuver, are slow, and lack the quality of horses, whose power is equivalent but whose endurance is twice that of oxen.

Han dynasty « breast strap ».

China reportedly first invented the “breast strap” which was the first step in the right direction.

Then, in the Vth Century, China also invented what is called the “rigid horse collar”, designed as an oval that fits around the neck and shoulders of the horse.

It has the following advantages:

–First, it relieved the pressure of the horse’s windpipes. It left the airway of the horse free from constriction improving massively the animal’s energy through-put.

–Second, the traces could be attached to the sides of the collar. This allowed the horse to push forward with its more powerful hind-legs rather than pulling with the weaker front legs.

Now you can argue that this is anecdotal. It is NOT, because what appears as only a slight change had absolutely monumental consequences.

European Renaissance

Use of the « rigid horse collar » in Europe.

In a strategic alliance and cooperation with the humanist Baghdad Abbasid caliphate, Charlemagne and his successors introduced the “rigid horse collar” in Europe.

With that new, far more efficient tool, European farmers finally could take full advantage of a horse’s strength. The horse was able to pull another recent innovation, the heavy plow. This became particularly important in areas where the soil was hard and clay-like. This opened up new plots of lands to agriculture. The rigid horse collar, the heavy plow, and horseshoes helped usher in a period of increased agricultural production.

As crop yields increased by threefold, so did Europe’s and France’s population.

As a result, between 1000 CE and 1300 CE, it is estimated that in Europe, crop yields increased by threefold, allowing to feed a rising number of citizens in the urban cities appearing in the XVth century and kick starting the global “Golden” European Renaissance. Thank you, China!

Some numbers are nevertheless disturbing:

–it took humanity thousands of years to finally domesticate the horse (long after the cow), in 3200 BC.

–it took humanity another 3700 years to learn how to find out, in the Vth century AD, the most efficient way to use horse-power…

Shifting from a “lower” infrastructure platform to a “higher” infrastructure platform might take some time. Today’s new “higher” platforms are called “space data” and “fusion power.” Let’s not wait another century to find out how to use them correctly!

Merci de partager !

On the origins of Modern Art, the problem of Symbolism

“At the turn of this century, painting is in bad shape. And for those who love the fatherland of paintings, very soon there will only remain the closed spaces of museums, in the same way there remains parcs for the amateurs of nature, to cultivate the nostalgia of that what doesn’t exist any longer…”

Jean Clair, Harvard graduate, director of the Musée Picasso
and of the centenary of the Venice Biennale of Contemporary Art in 1995.


Karel Vereycken, April 1998

Something is fairly rotten in the kingdom of Art, and if today (1998), finally some kind of debate breaks out, it is, halas, for quite bad reasons. Since it is uniquely in the context of budget cuts imposed on Europe by the Maastricht treaty that some questions are raised to challenge public opinion on a question carefully avoided till now: can we go on indefinitely subsidizing “modern artistic creation”, or what pretends to be so, with the tax-payers money, without any demand and outside any criteria?

Abusively legitimated by its status as a victim of the totalitarian regimes of Hitler, Stalin and Mao, Modern Art’s value as an act of resistance to totalitarianism watered away with the collapse of these regimes.

While we oppose the current budgetary cuts, since it would finish off the sick patient, we nevertheless propose to examine truthfully the illness and the potential remedies to be administered.

In France, the slightest critique immediately provoked the traditional hysterical fits. Raising a question, formulating an interrogation or even simply expressing a doubt on the holiness of Modern Art continues to be considered tantamount to starting an Inquisition. Even well integrated critiques such as the « left » leaning author Jean Baudrillard, or the director of the Paris Picasso museum Jean Clair and even the modern painter Ben, immediately bombarded by acid counter-attacks from the french and international Art nomenclature, accusing them of being “reactionaries”, “obscurantist” and, to crown it all, of being “fascists”, “nazis” and even “anti-Semites”.

For seasoned observers these attacks remind the simplicity of Stalinist rhetoric: “Anybody discussing the revolution is a fascist”. Modernist musical composer Pierre Boulez even accused a journalist of being a “Vichy collaborator” because unconvinced of the utility of the computers of his musical research foundation IRCAM.

That spark of debate, if any, became rapidly poisoned by the possessive defense of the scarce budget allocations. Why all this noise? Jean Clair already exposed his views fourteen years ago in his book “Considérations sur l’Etat des Beaux-Arts, Critique de la Modernité” (1983) without provoking such a hullabaloo.

But in times of crisis, funds seem to provoke more passion than fundamentals. In any case, we welcome Clair’s courage. His ironical critique of the rampant snobbism of the tiny, incestuous world of contemporary Art makers is totally uncompromising. His defense of the necessary rebirth of the basic skills of drawing and pastel is on the mark.

Clair rightly makes a distinction between « Contemporary » art on one side and « Modern » art on the other side. Contemporary Art, broke with Modern Art from the point it became a systemic apology of “non-sense [absence of meaning] that was elected a system. » Reality, writes Clair, leads him to demand that we return to “meaning” (deliberately banned by « contempory » art) which was the very power of « Modern » Art.

To understand this difference, inspired by the insights and works of my friend, american art historian Michael Gibson, we shall document here that the birth of « Modern » art was nothing but a mutation from figaritive « Symbolism » to non-figurative (abstract) Symbolism, both accepting their role of expressing a symbolic meaning. « Contemporary art », profiting from the confusion of the idea of a « secret » meaning inherent in symbolic artistry, then sneaked in and tried to pretend that any sort of meaning should and could be eliminated from artistic expression.

QUESTION:
« So if I understood you correctly, you claim there exist criteria that are universal, enabling rational man to distinguish with reason between beauty and ugliness which would free art from the arbitrary caprices of taste?”

ANSWER:
« Uh, yes, and even if one cannot establish a catalogue filled with models and instructions enforceable till the end of all times, we firmly think there exists a way of looking at things, a mental attitude which we can prove to have been fruitful since the early cave paintings, as those of Chauvet in southern France dating from 50.000 years B.C., till today. »

To say it differently, there is no such thing as the aesthetics of form, but some kind of aesthetics of the soul.

Any attempt to frame aesthetics, as a set of formal rules of the visible forms is the shortest road to finish in a sterile academic dead end.

By analogy, we could say that such an attempt in the domain of language would make linguistics the science of poetry…

Leonardo da Vinci defined the mission of the painter as the one who has to « make visible the invisible ». So it is up to us to define the aesthetics of the invisible and how they manifest themselves in the visible realm.

How to represent the world

Let’s look at ways of representing phenomena by starting from what appears to be the « most simple ».

A. “Bounded objects” of an inorganic or organic nature: for example stones, a glass bottle, but also a flower or the body of an animal or a man. Their relative finiteness makes their representation easier. But to “make them alive”, one has to show their participation to something infinite: the infinite variations of the color or a stone, the numerous reflections of light shattered by the glass bottle, the relative infinite number of leaves of a tree, the huge number of successive gestures which dictate spirit and life to the bodies of living beings. As you can see now, these so-called “simple” phenomena oblige us to choose, beyond simple sense perception, perceptions that enable us to express the idea of the object rather than its mere form.


B. “Openly unbounded objects”: for example a wave of the ocean, a forest, the clouds in the sky, or the expression of the eyes of a human being. Even more than in A., the Chinese principle of the “li” has to be considered. Instead of imitating their exterior form, and since their sometimes turbulent shapes escape in any case from our limited sense-perceptions, the exterior form has to be regarded as the expression of the idea that was the generating principle and we have to concentrate on choosing elements in the visible realm that indicate that “higher reality”. That makes the difference between the portrait of a living being and the portrait of a wax model…


C. “Ideas free from an object”: for example Love, Justice, Fidelity, Laziness, Cold, etc. How can we build gangways to the visible capable of representing these “higher ideas”?

ANSWER:

  1. Instead of representing the idea, I can try to substitute it with the object of the idea (one of Plato’s favorite subjects). For example I can try to represent the idea of Love by representing a woman. However, she cannot be but the object or the subject of love (She is loved or loves), but she is not Love itself.
  2. Since I’m in trouble having a representation in the visible realm of an idea of a “superior” nature, I decide to designate it by symbol. For example, a little heart to symbolize Love. For a Martian visiting Earth in the context of interplanetary tourism, the little heart has no meaning. By logical deduction, he could arrive at the conclusion the heart indicates heart patients, or cardiologists or eventually the designed victims of an Aztec sacrificial cult. In order to understand what is involved, some earthling has to initiate him into the pre-convened meaning of the symbol to which the inhabitants of earth agreed to. If not, it might take some time before he understands the “secret” meaning of the symbol.
  3. That symbol can be a simple visible element but also a little story we call allegorical. Illustrating an allegory will always remain a simple didactical exercise far underneath the sublime mission of art.
  4. The notion of a parable, as those one finds in the Bible, brings us closer to the wanted solution by its metaphorical character (Meta-poros in Greek meaning: that which carries beyond). The isochronical presence of several paradoxes, provoking surprise and irony by the ambiguities of the painting shakes up the sense certainty of our empirical perceptions that darken so much our natural predisposition for beauty.

SYMBOL and METAPHOR, What’s the difference?

Symbol: designates a thing
Metaphor: carries beyond the thing

Symbol: its only value is expressed by itself
Metaphor: its only value is given to it by implicit analogy.

Symbol: its secret meaning can only be learnt by convention
Metaphor: its meaning can be discovered by sovereign cognition.

Rembrandt’s Saskia

Saskia as Flora Rembrandt van Rijn, 1641, Dresden, Gemäldegalerie.

Let us examine together Rembrandt’s painting “Saskia as Flora” (1641), where she offers a flower to the viewer. Is this a portrait of Rembrandt’s wife along with the portrait of a flower? Or is there a new concept involved that arises in our mind as a result of this juxtaposition that could be called Love or Fidelity (to you I offer my beauty, as I offer you this flower…) The putting into visual analogy of two quite different things make appear a third one, which is in fact the real subject.

The easiest example of a real metaphorical paradox can be seen at work in wordplay or a cartoon drawing. For example if I draw a young couple in love and replace the head of the young man with the head of a dog, a completely different meaning is given to the image. The viewer, intrigued by the love relationship is surprised by the possessive (or submissive) character suggested by the dog head. Variations of the type of dog and his expression will vary the very meaning of the image. Once again, it is by the use of an implicit analogy that an unexpected arrangement gives us the means to grapple an idea beyond the object represented.

The little light bulb that goes on in our heads when we solve a metaphorical paradox gives us a threefold happiness. First the joy to think, since our thought process is precisely based on that unique process. Second to live in harmony with our world, which being a creative process itself “condemns” us to be free. And finally the joy that derives from the sharing of that happiness of discovery with other human beings who get even more creative in turn. Hence, every scientific or artistic discovery becomes a ray of light enlightening the path for humanity to go. The glowing enders of yesterday give us the fire to illuminate tomorrow.

But to do so, one cannot represent in a formal way the solution found. One is obliged to recreate the context which obliges the viewer to walk the same road we did till the precise point where he discovers himself the poetical concept.

The science of enigmas of Leonardo da Vinci

Saint John the Baptist Leonardo da Vinci, 1513-16, Louvre, Paris.

Renaissance genius Leonardo da Vinci was a specialist of this kind of « organized » enigmas, conspiracies to have us think. Let’s have a look at his painting “Saint John the Baptist”, his last painting and somehow his last will resuming all the best science of his creative mind. The ambiguous character of the person has been often used as “proof” of Leonardo’s alleged homosexuality.

One can indeed ask the question if represented here we see a man or a woman? The strong muscles of the arms plead for male while the gracious face argues for female. Desperate, our mind asks if this is devil or angel? While one finger points to heaven, similar to Raphael’s Plato in the « School of Athens », the other hand rests on the heart, and in the same time a coquette smile meets intelligent eyes

Of course, Saint-John the Baptist, patron saint of Florence served as the symbol of a humanist Platonic current that realized the fact that the « little lights » of classical Greece announced the coming of the « great light » of Christianity.

Scholastical Catholicism of those days pretended that anybody living before Christ could be nothing more than a pagan. So what about Saint John the Baptist? The compositional method here employed is not of a symbolical nature, but that of paradoxical metaphor, i.e. build by enigmas that guide us, if we accept the challenge, to reflect in a philosophical way about the nature of mankind: how is it possible we are finite in some parts and infinite in others? That we are mind, life and matter? Of divine and human nature?

That is in some words what we mean by the method of paradoxical metaphors, the only method which gives sense to the word « classic », since conceived in a universal way for all men in the time of all times.

The opposite approach is the symbolist one, officially named after an artistic current that swept over Europe at the end of the XIXth century.

Together with impressionism that capitulated to positivism, symbolism was the mother of Modern Art and its bastard son Contemporary Art.

The symbol, erected as a method of artistic expression, is characteristic of a society that is incapable of change. It celebrates the banishing of the movement of progress but masks that self-denial with the never-ending multiplication of images and objects, always equal to themselves. Symbolism is nothing but the transformation into an object of a strong emotion or a mystical thought. The increase of its effect through incantation, fetishism, repetition, etc., agitating the symbol for its magical value as such, evokes the same obsessive fixation as pornography. As the American thinker Lyndon LaRouche ironically underscored the point:

“the difference between Beethoven (method of metaphor) and Wagner (method of symbolism) is defined by the level at which emotions are provoked in the audience. In the case of Beethoven, the beauty evoked brings us to tears. In the case of Wagner, it is the chairs that get wet…”

From there on, as we will document in due course, the arising of “Modern Art” reveals itself to be nothing more than a mere linear transposition of “figurative” symbolism to “abstract” symbolism.

These terms are obviously empty shells, since all figuration is figurative, and all figuration is the expression of what could be called an “abstract” concept or idea, conscious or not.

So, contrary to Contemporary Art, whose aggressive meaning is that nothing has, can or has the right to have any meaning, Modern Art claims to possess a sense of meaning, but that meaning is mystical-symbolical and hermetic by nature. We are not saying that symbols should be banned from Art, but we cannot but underline that symbolistical though as a compositional method is incompatible with Art’s nature.

Real Art concentrates on communicating a unique human quality, the Sublime, that expresses freedom and not that of a man enslaved either to his sentiments neither to his principles.

Contemporary Art, as all large scale swindles, needs quite some rhetoric and literature to convince it’s public of its pure absolute relativity. It is said that each of us sees it differently; that we all possess our own criteria and that formulating any judgment is by itself already an act of a totalitarian fascist in germ. It is somehow like the thief who accuses his victim of cupidity and lack of brotherly love when the victim refuses to hand over his purse. But if one claims the right to create something without meaning, one equally revindicates the right to no critique, and therefore ends any form of real debate beyond « it gives me a kick » or « no kick ».

That Art, when it is sincere, by claiming it cannot be apprehended by human cognition, defines itself as egoistical and asocial. It cannot but harvest what it sows: indifference.

Before entering two personalities considered being the godfathers of Modern Art, Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944) and Piet Mondrian (1872-1944), it is necessary to situate the historical context in which they operated. Then we will investigate a high level political operation: the Theosophical Society whose malefic theories exerted great influence on both godfathers of Modern Art.

Symbolism, the final stage of Romanticism

To crush the republican spirit that emerged at the end of the eighteenth century, which saw the American and French revolution, the European oligarchy deployed initially Napoleon Bonaparte.

Then, on the ruins of the Napoleonic wars, they promoted the iron corset of the Holy Alliance and the impotent ideology of regretting: the privilege of the suffering heart. Romanticism, often described as a “movement for the liberation of the me, as a reaction against the regularity of classicism and the rationality of the preceding centuries” became the official culture of the Restoration before being adopted by the Monarchy of July.

Even the talented French poet Baudelaire, prisoner of the zeitgeist stated shamelessly: “What is there more absurd than progress?” or, premonitory:

“Who says romanticism says Modern Art, i.e. intimacy, spirituality, color, aspiration towards the infinite”.

In a way this was the expression of a certain revolt against positivism, a “scientific” materialism which some tried to impose top down and for which the hearts of men were not mobilized.

We are light-years away from the “science for all” approach which radiated Gaspard Monge at the early Ecole Polytechnique, or Lazare Carnot’s “Ode to enthusiasm”. It was the same Holy alliance that forced Carnot into exile and outrooted Monge´s influence at the Ecole, crushing France’s scientific and industrial progress.

In 1871, Louis Pasteur, in a beautiful article “Why France did not find a superior man in the moment of peril” analyzed the dramatic events of those days.

But also Germany was living under a real cultural dictatorship. Prince Metternich, by the Carlsbad decrees forbade any representation of Friedrich Schiller‘s theatre plays. Also, the “sulfurous” poet Heinrich Heine, mocking the Salons of Mme de Stael and all the other nostalgics of the lost glory of the past, became the permanent target of the Holy Alliance’s police operations.

Francesco Goya, who strongly lambasted the massacres of Bonaparte’s Spanish expedition (1810-1814) in his series “The disasters of War”, characterized this particular historic moment in his engraving “The sleep of Reason generates monsters”.

The Great Upheaval

On the economic front, it was only after Abraham Lincoln defeated the British backed pro-slavery Confederacy and the then ensuing industrial buildup (1861-1876), that a little progress was tolerated in Europe.

The oligarchy had to solve the following paradox: How can we counterbalance the rising American power while in the same time prevent the emergence of Republics in Europe, inspired by the American System, on the ruins of the European empires?

What some have called the « Great Upheaval » was nothing less than a profound transformation of daily life in Europe. It was precisely at that time that the Symbolist current got so dominant.

In the “industrial polygon of the Europe of steam” which connected Glasgow, Stockholm, Gdansk, Lodz, Trieste, Florence and Barcelona, it is estimated that of 7 persons from the country side, 1 stayed working the land, another went to the new world or the colonies, and the remaining 5 went working in the cities. The same estimate says that close to 60 million people left Europe. One can imagine the cultural choc for those who quit the magical world of pastoral backwardness.

In that sense, Symbolism was also a means for the oligarchy to deprive these incoming populations from the benefits of urban culture by keeping them in a state of irrationality.

The fear of political takeover by sovereign Nation-States dedicated to industrial and scientific progress was so great that the British Prime Minister, Lord Palmerston (1784-1865), activated through his agent Guiseppe Mazzini (1805-1872), the “Young Europe” movement, uniting most revolutionary currents of those days. Under the auspices of the Foreign Office’s Arab Bureau, the east saw the sudden birth of a whole series of Arab countries, eventually localized on this or that oilfield.

The Theosophical Society

HBP

It is in that context that one has to situate the extraordinary offensive of the Theosophical Society (TS), one of these pseudo-religions rising out of the esoterical swamp of the second half of the nineteenth century. It is useful to zoom in on the life of Helena Petrowna Blavatsky (HPB) (1831-1891), the main front figure of the TS.

Granddaughter of the Prussian General Alexis von Rottenstern-Hahn, HPB was born in 1831 in Ukraine.

At the age of sixteen, her parents married her to an old General with the name of Nicéphore Blavatsky, vice-governor ofprovince of Erivan, which she quitted nearly immediately.

In 1848, she meets a Copt with the name of Paulos Metamon and as early as 1851 she turns up in London, where she meets the “spiritualists” and meets the “revolutionary” Mazzini. In 1856 she affiliates with the Young Europe’s Carbonarist association.

Then, she travels across different continents having become a toy in the hands of her British promoters which she refers to as her “Spiritual masters”, as she called one of her controlling agents “Master Morya”.

As soon as 1851 she travels to the US and Mexico, crossing Texas and Louisiana. After numerous trips in the Caucasus, Syria and Lebanon, we find her on November 3, 1867, riding a horse siding Garibaldi. Severely wounded at the battle of Mentana, she’s left for dead.

While recuperating in Paris, she meets a journalist with the name of Michal, and the founder of French spiritism, Allan Kardec. The former claim they discovered and developed HPB’s faculties as a medium. Deployed in that capacity to Cairo, and in the USA, she’s accused of being a fraudster. It is relevant to situate Edgar Allan Poe’s literary production as the effort of the pro American system faction to ridicule the British offensive in favor of esoteric irrationality.

Colonel Henry Steel Olcott

HBP avec le colonel Olcott.

Around 1874, Blavatsky receives the order to enter into contact with a lawyer and insurance expert: Henry Steel Olcott.

Former officer of the Military Police, he became colonel during the civil war and shared his life in between Masonic lodges and spiritism. Active as a journalist, he was in charge of covering paranormal phenomena for the New York Sun and the New York Graphic.

Olcott got many inroads into the American esoterical scene of those days: John King, William Stainton Moses, Leadbeater, the Miracle Club of Philadelphia and a secret society called The Hermetic Brotherhood of Luxor whose members signed their writings with a swastika, symbol of the divinity of Tibet, the immense mountain plateau where supposedly the Aryan race found refuge at the time of the great deluge…

Then, on October 20, 1875 was founded in New York a “Society for Spiritualist investigations”. Its president was Olcott; the two vice-presidents were Felt and Pancoast, while Blavatsky figured as a mere secretary. Without willing to downplay her personal role, it looks she was brought in more for propagandistical reasons than in regard of her proper leadership qualities. As prominent members one can mention William Q. Judge and Charles Sotheran, both high dignitaries of Anglo-American masonry.

Albert Pike, one of the founders of the KKK.

It is also remarkable that the Confederate General Albert Pike, Grand Master of the Scottish Rite of the Southern district based in Charleston, and one of the founders of the Ku Klux Klan met Blavatsky in those days, but seems to have dropped her, considering her to low level. Pike’s spiritual reputation is largely overdone and he has been accused of having extensively plagiarized the French occultist Elipha Levi.

Less than a month later, on November 17, 1875, the Society’s named was changed into “Theosophical Society”. Olcott and Blavatsky immediately started a great project to conquer the minds of India.

Officially, they pretended to establish “The Great Contact”, a bridge between the initiated of the East with those of the West and to fusion them together.

HPB gets without any difficulty the American nationality while Olcott obtains from the president of the United States, Rutherford Hayes, a handwritten clearance, a document requesting American diplomats all over the world to provide them their aid. Also, the US Secretary of State provided Olcott a diplomatic passport, something relatively rare for a non-career diplomat. When they reached ground in India, all this American help will give them the means to establish the “British Theosophical Society” (sic).

The British oligarchy seemed to have preferred Hinduism and its great toleration of the cast system where individuals’ desires for a better life are hoped for in the next one, as a preferential partner for the British oligarchy and its imperial class society.

The fundamental choice of the cultural matrix that defines the particular beliefs, transcending any particular form of regime, has always been the “secret weapon” guaranteeing the survival of the oligarchical system. In this way, it is not any longer necessary to police people’s minds on issues, since you control the underlying axioms shaping their thought process itself.

What the Theosophical Society claims today in regard to its role in the birth of a national consciousness of India is an ugly lie, and maybe without Theosophy India might have gained independence a century earlier!

While it is true that Gandhi, who encountered the TS in a vegetarian club in London, studied their works, he never really adopted their convictions. After having started the TS in India, Olcott, in the same geopolitical strategy, will explore Buddhism going through Asia and settle in Japan to wake up the “sleeping masses”.

Olcott composed a Buddhist catechism, created a multicolor Buddhist flag and a General Committee of Buddhist Affairs that functioned as a kind of Vatican for Buddhism. He also held an extraordinary conference in Japan’s military center, Hiroshima. There he distributes swastikas to the audience to which he predicts the coming of terrible wars will strike humanity and that Hiroshima will become one of the symbols for peace and fraternity in the world (sic)!

Swipe Christianity of the Earth!

Olcott and Blavatsky seemed to be quite effective in performing funny magical tricks. Some of them were described by one of their victims, Mme de Jelihowsky:

  1. Clear and direct answers, of telepathic nature.
  2. Formulas pronounced in Latin, by way of hits, for remedies which resulted always in healing.
  3. Divulgation in public of secrets concerning persons that were present but that hurted Blavatsky by their doubts.
  4. Change of the weight of furniture or persons at will.
  5. Letters written by unknown correspondents with a writing that was not hers. Often, when somebody asked a question she would say: go in your room, and in such or such a place you will find a letter answering your question.
  6. Appearance and disappearance of objects without a plausible explanation.
  7. Faculty to let music be heard at will, wherever and whenever desired.

When depressed, Blavatsky admitted she swindled her admirers.

In their magazine, “The Blue Lotus”, Olcott wrote on November 27, 1895, p. 418:

“Certain days, she was in such a state of mind that she denied the powers by which she had given us carefully controlled demonstrations and pretended to have deceived her public”.

Behind all this cheap mumbo-jumbo reserved for the naïve members of the TS, there was small initiated elite aware of their real geo-strategical imperialism of the mind.

“Our aim”, said Blavatsky, in line with British geopolitics, “is not to restore Hinduism, but to swipe Christianity of the Earth”.

After the cremation of Baron of Palm, a rich donator of the TS, the first one in the history of the United States against which over three thousand people demonstrated, and who’s only aim was to introduce Hinduism to the U.S. population, Olcott and HPB exposed confusedly their doctrine in 1878 in “Isis unveiled”, a 1300 pages book that she called “the work of her life”, available in a more popular version under the name of “The Secret Doctrine”.

From the standpoint of Theosophy (which some called Theosophistry), and in a pure remake of manicheanism, religious beliefs could be classified between male and female religions.

The latter gave preponderance to peace, tranquility, sensuality, fertility and adaptation to the environment, while the male religions gave extensive privilege to the spirit of conquest and undertaking, to proselytism and to the superiority of male virtues.

Of course, Abraham and Moses, founders of the great monotheistic religions in which man does not adapt but intervenes and even discovers his specific harmony by transforming nature and highering its order, were targeted as the animal to be hunted. It was indeed these religions that largely overruled the ancient cult of mother goddess Gaia that became the Isis cult.

Isis cult

Winged Isis

ISIS

Isis is the most illustrious of the Egyptian goddesses, in charge of the home, marriage and fertility. Her power spread throughout the universe after she discovered the secret name of the supreme God, Ra.

She embodied the feminine principle, the magical source of all transformation, and was considered by all esotericists to be the Initiatrix, the one who held the secret of life, death and resurrection.

According to legend, she put back together her husband Osiris, whom the serpent Set had cut into fourteen pieces and scattered across Egypt. Only one piece was missing: the penis. Isis made one in silver. Her marriage to Osiris gave birth to Horus, who triumphed in the battle against the evil spirit, Set, but Isis asked him to spare her in order to maintain the cosmic battle between good and evil…

Often designated by the annealed cross, symbol of millions of years of future life, which is confused with the « Isis knot », symbol of immortality, Isis is also represented by the Ouroboros, or the snake that bites its own tail: sexual union with oneself, permanent self-fertilization, perpetual transformation from death to life.

To dominate the battlefield of the mind, a Machiavellian strategy was conceived:


1. Since the adoration of the mother goddess and the practice of female virtues nearly remained exclusively existent in India and Tibet, archaic Hinduism had to be revived. That is the reason why the Theosophists ran to India in order to prevent the nearby extinction of Hinduism. In France, Blavatsky’s main sponsor in that effort was the wealthy Duchesse de Pomar, a Spanish aristocrat descending from the Marquis of Northampton. For that aim, Orientalism and the practice of Yoga had to be encouraged and popularized.


2. Since the TS on its own was too tiny to weaken Christianity, Judaism and Islam, the TS combined its efforts with anti-progress Fabian Socialism. The just battle for republican secularism, founded on the mutual respect of religious freedom was distorted into a virulent denunciation of the Judeo-Christian philosophical outlook. The socialist inspiration of Jean Jaurès, while criticizing the inherent materialism of financial capitalism and Marxism passionately defended, in the name of a sense of transcendence, the right of entire growth and the pursuit of happiness for every human individual.


3. To fight “male supremacy”, it was decided by speech and action to defend anything that supposedly opposed it. Defend universal peace, to fight for the end of sexual discrimination, to make women free from their body, to make love become stronger than violence. For that reason, the TS always took a woman as its front figure. Annie Besant, an attractive Irish protestant and a member of the Fabian Society took the leadership of the TS after having directed the “Malthusian League” of England in 1877.

Such a project obviously didn’t rally much enthusiasm in those days, especially not in Catholic countries. The opposition was so strong that the TS adapted its outlook into some form of esoteric Christianity designed to penetrate the Christian strata. But for HPB, Judeo-Christian monotheism remained nothing else but a barbaric schism of Buddhism:

“What some called with despise paganism was the ancient wisdom full of divinity; and Judaism with its offshoots, Christianity and Islam took all their inspiration of their ethnic father…”

According to HPB, Jesus the Essenian was persecuted by the Jews because “the Essenian were converts, Buddhist missionaries that had come to Egypt, Greece and even Judea”

So, for her, Christianity had to be “de-judaizised” to make it again compatible with the female principle. The basic postulate behind all this was her fascination for the Aryan civilization whose symbol, the Swastika, of notorious nazi reputation, figures still today in the emblem of the ST.

THE SWASTIKA

A widespread symbol in all ancient civilizations (Asia, Central America, Mongolia, India, Northern Europe, Celts, Basques, Etruscans, etc.), it represents the vortex of creation.

The swastika, which often replaces the wheel, is made of a cross, each branch of which is quadrupled, as in vectorial orientations that define a gyratory direction and then return to the center. Its numerical value is therefore four times four = sixteen. This is the powerful development of reality or the Universe, an expression of extreme secular power. Its appropriation by Hitler was no accident.

The rise of the Nazi movement has been associated with the rise of the famous Thule Society, another esoteric society in the theosophical style, in which we find Karl Haushofer, Adolf Hitler’s real master thinker.

The anthroposophists of Rudolf Steiner, a great admirer of Nietzsche and the eugenicist Haeckel, are a dissident branch of the Theosophical Society, omnipresent today among the German « Grünen » (Greens).

The Nabis (the Prophets)

The Talisman, Paul Sérusier, 1888.

That gives us some elements to situate the historical context into which arrived Modern Art. Esotericism was so much an invading fashion that many painters tried to explore pre-Christian religions to discover “forgotten symbols”.

That was certainly the case of the French symbolist Gustave Moreau when he painted the Gnostic myth of Jupiter and Sémélé. His pupils were the “moderns” Henri Matisse, Georges Rouault and Albert Marquet.

Another young symbolist, Emile Bernard inspired Gauguin, which in turn inspired Paul Sérusier.

Art historian Michael Gibson keenly pointed out the fact that a great number of the founding figures of Modern Art (Kandinsky, Mondrian, Malevitch, Picasso, etc.) have ALL been figurative symbolists at their start.

We are convinced they remained so, but that they deconstructed, i.e. downscaled, the complexity of their symbolic language to more primitive elements of the visual field (a color, a line, a number, a geometry, etc.).

Gibson accurately identified the precise moment of that historical turning point towards modernism with the shift provoked by the group of the “Nabis”.

In 1888, close to Pont-Aven in Brittany France, Paul Sérusier painted one day in the presence of Gauguin a landscape composed of vibrating primitive flat surfaces of colors on the top of his box of cigars.

That work was nicknamed “The Talisman” by his comrades who considered it a revelation of a new approach in painting, the absolute destruction of any reference to physical space by the use of light or perspective. Welcome to the mystical flat space of color and its “interior light”.

Madeleine au bois d’amour, Emile Bernard, 1888, Musée d’Orsay, Paris

Paul Sérusier, Emile Bernard, Paul Gauguin and some friends rapidly called themselves the “Nabis”, which meant prophets in Hebrew.

The loss of virginity, Paul Gauguin, 1891, The Chrysler Museum, Norfolk, U.S.A. Inspired by Emile Bernard’s Madeleine au bois d’amour. The fox is a symbol of sexual potency and renewal. The cut flower in the hand is another symbol no less significant.

They regularly met in a house they called “The Temple” on 22, Boulevard Montparnasse in Paris. The phrasing alone already indicates the messianic mindset of these converts. Hoaxer Sar Joséphin Péladan united in 1892 all these young talents to the Salon of the Rosicrucians.

In the « Amendments of the Esthetical Rosicrucians », Peladan explicitly prescribed history painting, the painting of patriotic or military scenes and also,

« any representation of contemporary life, portraits, rustic scenes, seascapes, oriental scenes, domestic animals, flowers, fruits, accessories and other exercises painters insolently dare to expose ».

On the contrary « and to privilege the ideal of Catholicism and mysticism, the Rosicrucian order will welcome any work founded on legend, myth, allegory, dream, etc. »

One sees here, how Catholicism, as much as its opponents, if stripped from its content and reduced to its bare symbols could coexist peacefully with these insanities.

One ends up wondering why a World War didn’t break out earlier with elites espousing such follies! And when it did break out in 1914, Jacques Emile Blanche declared,

« Very often during this chemical and scientific ‘cubist’ war, in the night damaged by the air raids, I dreamt about Stravinsky’s Sacre du Printemps ».

Peladan’s Salon brought together symbolists from Belgium, Holland, Germany, such as Ferdinand Hodler, Carlos Swabe, Jan Toorop, Ferdinand Knopff, Jean Delville, Georges Minne and Xavier Mellery, with « Nabis » like Emile Bernard, Félix Valloton and Charles Fillinger.

A great part of this came into France from across the Channel where a real revolt was going on against the Academicism of Sir Joshua Reynolds.

Under the auspices and protection of the very popular John Ruskin, a real nostalgic fanatic willing to bring humanity back to a pre-Renaissance mystical feudal order, appeared the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, the PRB, that one of it’s degenerate founders, Dante Gabriel Rosetta, with sincere self irony called « Penis Rather Better »...

Kandinsky: from positivism to mysticism

Wassily Kandinsky with his mother.

The life path of the Russian painter Wassily Kandinsky, universally identified as the official godfather of Modern Art, gives us even more insight in the subject matter.

Kandinsky was born on December 4, 1866 amidst a wealthy orthodox family of aristocrats that made it as tea merchants. As Henri Matisse, he enters the University to study law and political economy.

In 1889 he’s sent on a mission by the Imperial Society of Natural Sciences and Ethnography to study the criminal law of the Finish community, the syrjaenen, a non-christianized tribe living in the province of Vologda, five hundred kilometers north of Moscow.

Kandinsky admitted in 1937:

« To be honest, the origin of my abstract painting has to be looked for in the popular Russian painting which I discovered for the first time during my trip to Northern Russia. »

Obtaining the post of law professor in 1896, another event that takes place the same year will completely “blow” his mind and decide him to quit his academic career entering a profound
mystical crisis.

That event was the discovery of radioactivity by the French physician Antoine-Henri Becquerel:

« For me, the disintegration of the atom, was the same thing as the disintegration of the entire world. The most solid walls suddenly collapsed. Everything became precarious, unstable and floppy. I wouldn’t any longer be astonished to see a stone melt in the air in front of me and become invisible. Science seemed to be annihilated: its most solid bases were a delusion, an error of scientists who were not building in a transfigurated light their work with a solid hand stone by stone, but grappling in the darkness. There, looking for truths by chance, and in their blindness, they confounded one object for the other. »

Kiss of the Sphinx by Franz von Stück. Attracted by beauty, man in reality embraces death, a remake of the classical Eros/Thanatos theme.

Kandinsky’s transition from “materialistic positivism” to “mystical spiritualism” is a clinical study case of the point we want to demonstrate.

Ecstatic after the discovery of a Wagner opera performance in Moscow, he leaves Russia to go live in Munich. He gives the following description of that experience:

« Lohengrin seemed a perfect realization of Moscow. The violins, the profound bases and particularly the wind instruments personify for me the splendid power of the twilight hours. »

In 1900, after a first refusal, he is admitted, together with Paul Klee, to enter the Academy of Franz von Stück, a well-referenced symbolist of Munich.

Von Stück’s painting, the « Kiss of the Sphinx » takes up the same theme as Moreau’s « Jupiter and Sémélé. » Attracted by (female) beauty, man in reality embraces death (a woman), a remake of the classical Eros/Thanatos theme.

Der Blaue Reiter to defeat materialism

One year later, the pupil becomes himself a teacher and creates the group “Phalanx”, symbol of the fight against Academicism.

Kandinsky reveals himself as an able organizer of art exhibits, throwing in his personal fortune and capable of convincing other sponsors.

Very rapidly he gives the exhibits an international dimension and the presence of foreign artists reinforces the illusion that the new tendency in art possesses a universal character. In the theosophist tradition, he rightly opens his academy to women, excluded till then from art academies!

His admiration for Blavatsky is limitless.

« Blavatsky was certainly the first to establish, after living for years in India, a solid link between these so-called « savages » and our culture. At that point, there came into being one of the greatest spiritual movements uniting a great number of people, materializing that union under the form of a « Theosophical Society ». That society is composed of lodges, who try to approach the questions of the spirit by the way of interior knowledge. »

Uniting the group of « Die Brücke » with his own efforts and those of Franz Marc and Paul Klee, he called into being the almanac of the “Blaue Reiter” (Blue Cavalier), in reality a reworked image of a Byzantine icon of Saint-Georges defeating the dragon of evil transposed into a bleu cavalier defeating materialism.

In his ground text of 1909, Concerning Spiritual in Art and painting in particular, Kandinsky builds up a theoretical system where every color possesses its own separate identity:

« Red, as one imagines oneself, as a color without border, typically warm, acts interiorly as a very living color, vivid and agitated, which does not possess the thoughtless character or yellow that gets dispersed to all sides, but gives the effect, despite all its energy and intensity, of the powerful note of immense force nearly conscious of its aim.

« There is in that effervescence and that eagerness, principally in itself and scarcely turned towards the exterior, some sort of male maturity. »

« When it is medium, as cinnabar, the red gets more permanent and increases its sharp sensibility: it is like a passion that burns with regularity, a force certain of itself, which is not easy to overlay, but which can be extinguished by the blue as red iron by water. That red tolerates nothing cold that makes it lose its resonance and its meaning. Or more exactly, that tragic, brutal cooling down produces a tone that painters, especially today, avoid and outlaw as « dirty ». They are wrong. Dirt, through its material form, represents materially, as a material being, possesses its interior resonance as any other material being. That why the attempt to avoid dirtiness in painting is as unjust and arbitrary as yesterday’s fear in front of « pure » color.

« One does not have to forget that all the means derived from the interior necessity are pure. Said differently, that what is dirty from the outside is pure from the inside. If not, what is pure from the outside is dirty inside. »

« The six colors, who, by couples, form three major contrasts, present themselves to us as a great circle, as a snake which bites its tail (symbol of infinity and eternity). And on the right and on the left we find the two great possibilities for silence; the one of death and the one of birth. »

One sees here the splendid rigor of a law professor, charmed by the “sense of construction of Roman law”, applying his science zealously to mysticism. Kandinsky’s writings are always inhabited with references to music, such as resonance, harmony, rhythm, etc.

In the same way musical ideas got freed of the presence of text and words, Kandinsky and argue that the same thing can be done in the visual domain using merely color, rhythm, form, etc. taken as entities on themselves.

But what music is he talking about, beneath Wagner? In Kandinsky’s immediate entourage we find the atonal composer Arnold Schönberg, who exploded the well-tempered system according to the same mystical principles, making it as such incapable of transmitting ideas.

From Mondrian to Breker

The famous Dutch cubist, Piet Mondrian, was another original product resulting from the mixture of Theosophy and Calvinist rigorism.

At that time, the TS launched a recruitment drive calling on those desiring to “have a place amidst the pioneers of the coming thinking”.

The unique picture decorating the wall of Mondrian’s studio in Laren was a large picture of Blavatsky. The artist was in frequent discussion with the Dutch theosophist writer Schoenmakers whose books Mondrian was distributing.

In 1892, he starts studying Theosophy and joins the TS in 1909.

His triptych, “Evolution” expresses the three stages of spiritual evolution: on the left, the mother goddess with triangles pointing down, the lowest level. In the middle, a female figure, with triangles pointing up, stage of activity and awakening. On the right the synthesis of both, the crossing triangles forming a David star.

Evolution, Piet Mondrian, 1910, Gemeentemuseum, Den Haag.

Let us not forget talking about the official art of the Third Reich, with the figurative symbolism of the outright pagan sculptor Arno Breker.

Breker was Hitler’s personal pet sculptor and realized in 1936 the infamous incarnations of the Ubermensch (superior man) for the Nazi’s Olympic Stadium in Berlin.

As proven by interviews after the war, the so-called “apolitical” Breker was very well aware for what kind of power he was working.

His work “Bereitschaft” (readiness) of 1939 proves the case.

Mascot of the Parisian elites, since trained by a Frenchman, his personal exhibit at the Orangerie in Paris in 1942 drew over 80.000 visitors. He shared the fascist ethics of filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl, always ready to popularize nazi symbology.

Breker was befriended with Jean Cocteau, Vlaminck and Derain, and turned down Stalin’s offer to work for the USSR after the war.

A cubist in his early days (1922), he was disappointed by the meeting he had with Paul Klee and the Bauhaus, and invested himself in the total deification of the human body. Breker confirmed: “I always tried to give a meaning with symbols”.

In all his spirituality, Breker did not hesitate in his “Vision of Europe” to transpose an eagle’s heads on human bodies, making them into Horus, son of Isis.

On the right, Arno Breker’s sculpture, “Young Europe”, 1980, 70cm, Düsseldorf.

The inversion of these symbolisms, restating the supremacy of male values over female values was nothing less than the creation of esthetics of war.

In 1980, Breker explained in an interview how he saved the life of Picasso and that of Aristide Maillol’s Jewish companion, Dina Vierny using his direct position as an intimate of Adolph Hitler.

The Italian futurists are another obscene example. Many proudly joined the fascist movements and some were really chocked Hitler condemned their modernism at a Nuremberg rally.

Marinetti, who published his “Futurist Manifesto” in Le Figaro in 1909 claimed proudly:

« Point 3: Literature being up till now an apology of contemplating immobility, ecstasy and sleep, we want to exalt the aggressive movement, the fevery insomnia, the gymnastic step, the dangerous jump, the slap in the face and the punching.

« Point 7: There is no beauty outside struggle. There are no masterpieces without aggressive character. Poetry must be a violent assault on unknown forces, to summate them to lie down before man…

« Point 9: We want to glorify war –the unique hygiene of the world, militarism, and patriotism, the destructive gesture of the anarchists, the nice ideas that kill, and the disdain of women…

« Point 10: We want to demolish the Museums and Libraries, fight moralism, feminism and all of opportunistic and utilitarian cowardness. »

As we have demonstrated, this modernism is nothing less than the restoration of the most backward values of ancient civilizations, deprived of their dynamic and reduced to caricatures of their worst defaults.

What we defend here is on the contrary a Renaissance, that is a universal but authentic process of artistic creation fertilized by the best contributions of all cultures, be them Indian, African, Asiatic, American or European.

Our critique of Modernism is not based on any nostalgic longing for a supposedly perfect Golden Age that is no more, but on the commitment to valorize mans dignity and mind.

If you really want to use the word modern, talk about the Mummy portraits of the Fayoum of the second and third century after DC.

Theosophy today

Even if there still exists today an international network of Blavatsky lodges from Antwerp to Philadelphia or Saint Petersburg, it has been in the recent days mainly the radical green current who is leading the fight to destroy the humanist cultural paradigm.

As the Theosophists yesterday, the Greens which have replaced the mother goddess (sounds too religious) with Mother earth (Gaia) express the same messianic zeal in their commitment to sweep the earth and often rally de facto the forces of race, soil and blood.

As yesterday, the green current gets supported by the highest spheres of Anglo-American aristocratic gangsterism.

Deceased financial angel of French archconservative Philippe de Villiers, Jimmy Goldsmith, has a brother, Teddy, who happens to be one of the main funders of Greenpeace!

Documents and articles consulted:

  • Chaitkin, Anton, Tarpley, Webster, The Palmerston Zoo, Executive Intelligence Review, Vol. 21, nr.16, Apr.15, 1994.
  • Cheminade, Jacques, Time to destroy the myth of Napoleon Bonaparte, Executive Intelligence Review, Vol. 23, 42, Oct.18, 1996.
  • Clair, Jean, Considérations sur l’Etat des Beaux Arts – Critique de la Modernité, Gallimard, Paris 1983.
  • Gibson, Michael, Le Symbolisme, Editions Taschen, Paris, 1994.
  • Kandinsky, Nina, Kandinsky et moi, Flammarion, Paris 1978.
  • Kandinsky, Wassily, Concerning the Spiritual in Art, and painting in particular, Dover Editions, New York, 1977.
  • Lantier, Jacques, La Théosophie, Editions Culture, Art, Loisirs, Paris.
  • LaRouche, Lyndon, How Cauchy ruined France, EIR, Vol.24, nr. 24, June 20, 1997.
  • Noël, Bernard, Arno Breker et l’Art officiel, Jacques Damase Editeur, Paris 1981.
  • Prampolino, Enrico, Stile Futuristica, nr. 3, Turin 1933.
  • Parmelin, Hélène, Peinture, pierre de touche de la liberté, L’Unité nr. 416, 1978.
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The 1648 Peace of Westphalia, a worldwide financial reorganization

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Signing of the Peace of Westphalia, in Münster 1648, painting by Gerard Ter Borch.


In 1648, after five years of negotiations, led by the French diplomat Abel Servien on the instructions of Cardinal Mazarin, the “Peace of Westphalia” was signed, putting an end to the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648). Long before the UN Charter, 1648 made national sovereignty, mutual respect and the principle of non-interference the foundations of international law.

The Republic of the Netherlands and the Helvetian Confederation were recognized and numerous bilateral peace treaties put an end to many conflicts.



But that is not all. A careful reader of these treaties discovers that the commitment of all parties to take into account “the advantage of others” as much, if not more, than their own, is translated into concrete acts laying the foundations of a new international financial and economic order.

Article 1 states the fundamental philosophical principle upon which peace rests:



“That there shall be a Christian and Universal Peace, and a perpetual, true, and sincere Amity, between [list of parties renouncing combat]; That this Peace and Amity be observ’d and cultivated with such a Sincerity and Zeal, that each Party shall endeavour to procure the Benefit, Honour and Advantage of the other; that thus on all sides they may see this Peace and Friendship in the Roman Empire, and the Kingdom of France flourish, by entertaining a good and faithful Neighbourhood.”

Article 2 goes on to describe the kind of « Global Reset » so urgently needed today:

“That there shall be on the one side and the other a perpetual Oblivion, Amnesty, or Pardon of all that has been committed since the beginning of these Troubles, in what place, or what manner soever the Hostilitys have been practis’d, in such a manner, that no body, under any pretext whatsoever, shall practice any Acts of Hostility, entertain any Enmity, or cause any Trouble to each other; (…) all that has pass’d on the one side, and the other, as well before as during the War, in Words, Writings, and Outrageous Actions, in Violences, Hostilitys, Damages and Expences, without any respect to Persons or Things, shall be entirely abolish’d in such a manner that all that might be demanded of, or pretended to, by each other on that behalf, shall be bury’d in eternal Oblivion.”


For decades, most of the belligerents in the Thirty Years’ War inflicted terrible damage on each other, mainly in order to pay off their debts with the spoils of their plunder and conquests, essentially to satisfy a tiny financial oligarchy that lent as generously to one as to another. It is precisely this “enslavement by debt” that the treaty proposes to “bury in eternal oblivion”.

Hence, even before settling disputes and territorial claims, the treaty sets out to create the conditions that will put an end to the financial ruin into which all were descending.

As in the case of other rare “Debt Jubilee”, unpayable, unsustainable and illegitimate debts, interests, bonds, annuities and financial claims, explicitly identified as fueling a dynamic of perpetual war, were examined, sorted out and reorganized, most often through the cancellation of debts (articles 13 and 35, 37, 38 and 39), through moratoria or debt rescheduling according to specific timetables (article 69).

Article 40 concludes that debt cancellations will apply in most cases, “and yet the Sums of Money, which during the War have been exacted bona fide, and with a good intent, by way of Contributions, to prevent greater Evils by the Contributors, are not comprehended herein. » (Implying that these debts would have to be honored.)

Finally, looking to the future, for Commerce to be “reestablished”, the treaty abolished many tolls and customs established by “private” authorities for they were obstacles to the exchange of physical goods and know-how and hence to mutual development. (Art. 69 and 70).

In the text:

Art. 13:
Reciprocally, the Elector of Bavaria renounces entirely for himself and his Heirs and Successors the Debt of Thirteen Millions, as also all his Pretensions in Upper Austria; and shall deliver to his Imperial Majesty immediately after the Publication of the Peace, all Acts and Arrests obtain’d for that end, in order to be made void and null.”

Art. 35:
That the Annual Pension of the Lower Marquisate, payable to the Upper Marquisate, according to former Custom, shall by virtue of the present Treaty be intirely taken away and annihilated; and that for the future nothing shall be pretended or demanded on that account, either for the time past or to come.”

Art. 37:
That the Contracts, Exchanges, Transactions, Obligations, Treatys, made by Constraint or Threats, and extorted illegally from States or Subjects (…) shall be so annull’d and abolish’d, that no more Enquiry shall be made after them.”

Art. 38:
That if Debtors have by force got some Bonds from their Creditors, the same shall be restor’d, but not with prejudice to their Rights.”

Art. 39:
“That the Debts either by Purchase, Sale, Revenues, or by what other name they may be call’d, if they have been violently extorted by one of the Partys in War, and if the Debtors alledge and offer to prove there has been a real Payment, they shall be no more prosecuted, before these Exceptions be first adjusted. That the Debtors shall be oblig’d to produce their Exceptions within the term of two years after the Publication of the Peace, upon pain of being afterwards condemn’d to perpetual Silence.”

Art. 40:
“That Processes which have been hitherto enter’d on this Account, together with the Transactions and Promises made for the Restitution of Debts, shall be look’d upon as void; and yet the Sums of Money, which during the War have been exacted bona fide, and with a good intent, by way of Contributions, to prevent greater Evils by the Contributors, are not comprehended herein.”

Art. 68:
“As for the finding out of equitable and expedient means, whereby the Prosecution of Actions against Debtors, ruin’d by the Calamitys of the War, or charg’d with too great Interests, and whereby these Matters may be terminated with moderation, to obviate greater inconveniences which might arise, and to provide for the publick Tranquillity; His Imperial Majesty shall take care to hearken as well to the Advices of his Privy Council, as of the Imperial Chamber, and the States which are to be assembled, to the end that certain firm and invariable Constitutions may be made about this Matter (…)”.

Art. 69 :
“And since it much concerns the Publick, that upon the Conclusion of the Peace, Commerce be re-establish’d, for that end it has been agreed, that the Tolls, Customs, as also the Abuses of the Bull of Brabant, and the Reprisals and Arrests, which proceeded from thence, together with foreign Certifications, Exactions, Detensions; Item, The immoderate Expences and Charges of Posts, and other Obstacles to Commerce and Navigation introduc’d to its Prejudice, contrary to the Publick Benefit here and there, in the Empire on occasion of the War, and of late by a private Authority against its Rights and Privileges, without the Emperor’s and Princes of the Empire’s consent, shall be fully remov’d; and the antient Security, Jurisdiction and Custom, such as have been long before these Wars in use, shall be re-establish’d and inviolably maintain’d in the Provinces, Ports and Rivers. ”

Full texte of the quotes and the Treaty

Click on this link

https://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/westphal.asp

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