Étiquette : Islam
By Karel Vereycken
(texte original en français)
“The ink of the scholar is more sacred than the blood of the martyr.”Sayings (Hadith) most often attributed to the Prophet.
“Seek knowledge from the Cradle to the Grave.”
“Seek knowledge even as far as China.”
We live in a time of cruel stupidity. While the history of civilization is characterized by multiple cultural contributions allowing an infinite and magnificent mutual enrichment, everything is done to dehumanize us.
By dint of media coverage of the most extreme crimes, notably by claiming that such and such an abject or barbaric act has been committed « in the name » of such and such a belief or religion, everything is done to set us against each other. If we do not react, the famous thesis of a « Clash of Civilizations », concocted by the British Islamologist Bernard Lewis (Henry Kissinger’s, Zbigniew Brzezinski’s and Samuel Huntington’s mentor) as an evil tool of geopolitical manipulation, will become a self-fulfilling prophecy.
In order to combat prejudices and dangerous misunderstandings about “Islam” (with 1.6 billion believers a non-negligible part of the world’s population), here follows a brief overview of the major contributions of the Arab-Muslim civilization.
By recalling two major contributions of the “Golden Age” of Islam, notably Arab astronomy and mutazilism, what is at stake here is the recognition that –just like Memphis, Thebes, Alexandria, Athens and Rome– Baghdad, Damascus and Cordoba were major crucibles of a universal civilization which is ours today.
While Europe has come to recognize that the invention of printing took place in China long before Gutenberg, and that America was visited way before Christopher Columbus, consensus and group think keeps repeating that the Arabs contributed nothing to the progress of science.
In the 1300 years separating the Greek astronomer from Alexandria, Claudius Ptolemy (ca. 100-178 AD) from the Polish Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), they pretend, nothing but “a black hole”.
In 1958, in his book The Sleepwalkers, British Hungarian writer Alfred Koestler, who helped Sydney Hook to co-found the CIA’s cultural cold war front, the Congress for Cultural Freedom, epitomized western arrogance, writing:
the Arabs had merely been the go-betweens, preservers and transmitters of the heritage. They had little scientific originality and creativeness of their own. During the centuries when they were the sole keepers of the treasure, they did little to put it to use. (…) and by the fifteenth century, the scientific heritage of Islam had largely been taken over by the Portuguese Jews. But the Jews, too, were no more than go-betweens, a branch of the devious Gulf-stream which brought back to Europe its Greek and Alexandrine heritage, enriched by Indian and Persian additions.
Nothing is more false. Definitely, one must be born on the right spot to be allowed to have a seat in the train of history…
Copernicus himself, unlike Koestler, was perfectly familiar with Arab astronomy. In 1543, in his De Revolutionibus, he quotes several Arab scientists, more precisely Al-Battani, al-Bitruji, al-Zarqallu, Ibn Rushd (Averroes) and Thabit ibn Qurra. Copernicus also refers to al-Battani in his Commentariolus, a manuscript published posthumously. Later, the great Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) would also refer to Ibn Al-Haytam in his work on optics.
In reality, Copernicus and even more Kepler, whose creative genius cannot be overrated, came up with answers to questions raised by several generations of Arab astronomers preceding them and whose contribution remains largely ignored and even worse, unexplored. To this day, with about 10,000 manuscripts preserved throughout the world, a large part of which has still not been the subject of a bibliographic inventory, the Arab astronomical corpus constitutes one of the best preserved components of medieval scientific literature waiting to be rediscovered.
Science and religion versus slavery
Before examining the contributions of Arab astronomy, a few words about the intimate link between Islam and the development of science.
According to tradition, it was in 622 CE that the Prophet Muhammad and his companions left Mecca and set out for a simple oasis that would become the city of Medina.
If this event is known as the “Hegira”, an Arabic word for emigration, break-up or exile, it is also because Mohammad broke with a societal model based on blood ties (clan organization), in favor of a model of a shared destiny based on belief. In this new religious and societal model, where each person is supposed to be a “brother,” it is no longer permissible to abandon the poor or the weak as was the case before.
The powerful clans in Mecca did everything they could to eliminate this new form of society, which diminished their influence.
The “Medina Constitution” allegedly proclaimed equality among all believers, whether they were free men or slaves, Arabs or non-Arabs.
The Koran advocates strict equality between Arabs and non-Arabs in accordance with the Prophet, who said, in his farewell address:
“There is no superiority of an Arab over a non-Arab, or of a non-Arab over an Arab, and no superiority of a white person over a black person or of a black person over a white person, except on the basis of personal piety and righteousness.”(Reported by Al-Bayhaqi and authenticated by Shaykh Albani in Silsila Sahiha no. 2700).
Hence, if after the Prophet’s passing away, slavery and slave trade became a common practice in close to all Muslim countries, he cannot be held accountable. Zayd Ibn Harithah, according to tradition, after having been the slave of Khadija, Muhammad’s wife, was freed and even adopted by Muhammad as his own son.
For his part, Abu Bakr, Muhammad’s companion and successor as the first Caliph (Arab word for “successor”), also freed Bilal ibn-Raba, the son of a former Abyssinian princess who had been enslaved. Bilal, who had a magnificent voice, was even appointed the first muezzin, that is to say the one who calls for prayer five times a day from the top of one of the mosque’s minarets.
Among the first verses revealed to the Prophet Muhammad one finds :
“Read! And your Lord is the Most Generous, Who taught by the pen ; Taught man that which he knew not.”(Surat 96).
The Prophet also states,
“The best among you (Muslims) are those who learn the Koran and teach it.”
Other sayings, often attributed to the Prophet, clearly invite Muslims to seek knowledge and cherish science :
“The ink of the scholar is more sacred than the blood of the martyr”.
“Seek knowledge from the Cradle to the Grave”.
“Seek knowledge even as far as China”.
The mosque is therefore much more than a place of worship, it is a school of all sciences, where scholars are trained. It serves as a social and educational institution: it may be accompanied by a madrassa (Koranic school), a library, a training center, or even a university.
As in most religions, in Islam, practices and rituals are punctuated by astronomical events (years, seasons, months, days, hours). Every worshipper must pray five times a day at times that vary depending on where he or she is on Earth: at sunrise (Ajr), when the sun is at its zenith (Dhohr), in the afternoon (Asr), at sunset (Magrib) and at the beginning of the night (Icha). Astronomy, as a spiritual occasion to fine-tune one’s earthly existence according to the harmony of the Heavens, is omnipresent.
As an example, to underscore its importance, July 16, 622 AD, the first day of the lunar year, was declared the first day of the Hegira calendar. And during the eclipse of the sun, mosques host a special prayer.
Islam encourages Muslims to guide themselves by the stars. The Koran states :
“And He is the One who made the stars for you to guide you with them in darkness of the land and the sea”.
With such an incentive, early Muslims could not but feel compelled to perfect astronomical and navigational instruments. As a result, today more than half of the stars used for navigation bear Arabic names. It was only natural that the faithful constantly tried to improve astronomical calculations and observations.
The first reason to do so is that during the Muslim prayer, the worshipper has to prostrate himself in the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca, so he has to know how to find this direction wherever he is on Earth. And the construction of a mosque will be decided according to the same data.
The second reason is the Muslim calendar. The Koran states :
“The number of months in the sight of Allah is twelve (in a year)- so ordained by Him the day He created the heavens and the earth; of them four are sacred: that is the straight usage.”
Clearly, the Muslim calendar is based on the lunar months, which are approximately 29.5 days long. But 12 times 29.5 days is only 345 days in the year. This is far from the 365 days, 6 hours, 9 minutes and 4 seconds that measure the duration of the rotation of the Earth around the Sun…
Finally, a last challenge was posed by the interpretation of the lunar movement. The months, in the Muslim religion, do not begin with the astronomical new moon, defined as the moment when the moon has the same ecliptic longitude as the sun (it is therefore invisible, drowned in the solar albedo); the months begin when the lunar crescent starts to appear at dusk.
The Koran says: “(Muhammad), they ask you about the different phases of the moon. Tell them that they are there to indicate to people the phases of time and the pilgrimage season.”
For all these reasons, the Muslims could not be satisfied with either the Christian or the Hebrew calendar, and had to create a new one.
In order to forecast the phases of the moon, new methods of calculation and new instruments capable of observing them were required. The calculation of the day when the crescent moon starts to become visible again was a formidable challenge for the Arab scholars. To predict this day, it was necessary to be able to describe its movement in relation to the horizon, a problem whose resolution belongs to a rather sophisticated spherical geometry.
It was the determination of the direction of Mecca from a given location and the time of prayers that led the Muslims to develop such geometry. To solve these problems, it is necessary to know how to calculate the side of a spherical triangle of the celestial sphere from its three angles and the other two sides; to find the exact time, for example, it is necessary to know how to construct the triangle whose vertices are the zenith, the north pole, and the position of the Sun.
The field of astronomy has strongly stimulated the birth of other sciences, in particular geometry, mathematics, geography and cartography. Some people like to recall that Platonists and Aristotelians were arguing about rather abstract concepts, each of them believing that reason was sufficient to understand nature. Arab astronomy, on the other hand, played a decisive role in the emergence of a true scientific method by verifying the various hypotheses, by building measuring instruments and astronomical observatories and by rigorously recording observations over many years.
The question then arises as to where this infatuation with science and astronomy could have come from, in a culture essentially centered on religion?
A first answer comes from the fact that in the 8th century, shortly after the birth of Sunnism (656), Kharidjism (657) and Shi’ism (660), but independently of these currents, a school of Muslim theological and philosophical thought appeared, founded by the revolutionary theologian Wasil ibn Ata (700-748), a current known as “mutazilism” (or motazilism), branded in the West as “the rationalists” of Islam. One explanation of its name came from the fact that the mutazili refused to take part in the internal strife inside factions using theological interpretations for earthly power, the arab word iʿtazala meaning “to withdraw”.
Wasil was born in Medina in the Arabian Peninsula and moved to Basra, now in Iraq. From there he formed an intellectual movement that spread all over the Arab-Muslim world. Many of his followers were merchants and non-Arabs (mawâlî) from Iranian or Aramaic “converted” families, victims of the Omayyad dynasty’s discriminating policies between Arabs and non-Arabs. This hypothesis is sufficient to back the claim of a Mutazilite participation in the overthrow of the Omayyad and that dynasty’s replacement with the Abbasid.
In a clear break with dualistic cosmology (Mazdeism, Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism, etc.), Mutazilism insists on the absolute unity of God, conceived as an entity outside time and space. For them, there is a close relationship between the unity of the Muslim community (Ummah) and the worship of the Lord. The Mutazilites are closely inspired by the Koran, and it is quite wrong to present them as the “free thinkers” of Islam.
However, “we reject faith as the only way to religion if it rejects reason,” the Mutazilite saying goes. Relying on reason (the logos dear to the Greek thinkers Socrates and Plato), which it considers compatible with Islamic doctrines, Mutazilism affirms that man can, outside of any divine revelation, access knowledge.
Just as Augustine, a christian, emphasized man can advance on the path of truth, not only through the Gospel (revelation), but by reading “the Book of Nature”, a reflection and foretaste of divine wisdom. One book of the Bible, The Book of Wisdom, recognizes that
For from the greatness and the beauty of created things(Book of Wisdom, 13:5)
their original author,
by analogy, is seen.
Muzatilism gives human reason (the faculty of thinking) and freedom (the faculty of acting) a place and importance not only unknown in other trends of Islam but even in most philosophical and religious currents of the time. Against fatalism (“mektoub!” = it was written!), which was the dominant tendency in Islam, mutazilism affirms that the human being is responsible for his acts.
More than five centuries before Erasmus, the five principles of the Mutazilite faith offered already the foundations to solve most of the sterile theological disputes that would destroy the Renaissance and throw Europe in the abyss of self-destruction known as the “wars of religion”.
Here are the five principles, described by the Mutazilite theologian Abdel al Jabbar Ibn Ahmad (935-1025) and summarized in 2015 by economist Nadim Michel Kalife:
—Monotheism (Al Tawhid) whose concept of God is beyond the simple intellect of the human mind. That is why the verses of the Koran describing God “sitting” on a throne should be interpreted only allegorically and not literally. Hence the Mutazilites called their opponents anthropomorphists who sought to reduce God who is unknowable to a human appearance. And they concluded that this one detail (!) of the Koran is sufficient to prove that the Koran is not “uncreated” but “created” by Allah, via man, to make it accessible to the believer, and therefore, that it can and should evolve and adapt according to the times and circumstances ;
—Divine justice (Adl) is about the origin of evil in our world where God is all-powerful. Mutazilism proclaims free will, where evil is man’s doing and not God’s will, because God is perfect and therefore cannot do evil or determine man to do it. And, if human wrongdoings were the will of God, punishment would lose all meaning since man would be doing nothing but respecting the divine will. This unquestionable logic allowed Mutazilism to refute predestination and the « mektoub » of the Sunni schools;
—Promise and threat (al-Wa’d wa al-Wa’id): this principle concerns the judgment of man at his death and that of the last judgment where God will reward the obedient in the heavenly paradise, and punish those who disobeyed him by damning them eternally in the fires of hell;
—The intermediate degree (al-manzilatu bayn al-manzilatayn), the first principle opposing Mutazilism to the Sunni schools. A great sinner (murder, theft, fornication, false accusation of fornication, drinking alcohol, etc. ) should be judged neither as a Muslim (as Sunnism thinks) nor as a disbeliever or kâfir (as the Kharidjites think), but considered in an intermediate degree from which, when he dies, he will go to hell if he failed to be redeemed by God’s mercy ;
—To order the good and blame the blameworthy (al-amr bil ma’ruf wa al-nahy ‘an al munkar): this principle authorizes even rebellion against authority when it is unjust and illegitimate, to prevent the victory of evil over all. This principle attracted the hatred of the ulama (theologians) and imams (predicators) who saw it as a manouver to weaken their own authority over the faithful. And the Seljuk Turks considered it a serious danger since it called into question their power… over the Arabs.
Mutazilism under the Abbasid
In Baghdad, it was with the rise of the Abbasid Caliphate in 749 that Mutazilism gained influence, first under the Caliph Hâroun al-Rachîd (765-809) (“Aaron the Well-Guided”) and then under his son, Al-Ma’mûn (786-833) (“The one to be trusted”). Shortly before his death in 833, the latter made Mutazilism the official doctrine of the Abbasid Empire.
This was too much for the conservative ulama and imams who rebelled against the Caliph’s enlightened vision that created a space for secular society and limited their grip over society. Faced with the revolt, the Abbasid administration (made up largely of Persians), which was won over to Mutazilism, carried out a ruthless crackdown on Sunni (Arab) clerics for fifteen years, from 833 to 848. This bloody persecution left an increasingly bitter taste in people’s minds, especially when the Abbasid power refused to release Muslim prisoners in the hands of the Byzantines if they did not renounce the dogma of the “uncreated” nature of the Koran…
Finally, in 848, Caliph Jafar al-Mutawakkil (847-861), changed course completely and asked the traditionalists to preach hadiths according to which Muhammad had condemned the Mutazilites and their supporters.
Dialectical theology (Kalâm) was banned and the Mutazilites were not any longer welcome at the Baghdad court. This was also the end of the spirit of tolerance and the return of persecution against Christians and Jews. If the craze for science continued, Mutazilism disappeared with the fall of the Abbasids and the destruction of Baghdad by the Mongols in the 13th century.
Mutazilism also influenced Judaism. The Kitab Al-Amanat Wa’l-I’tiqadat – that is, the Book of Beliefs and Opinions – by the tenth-century Jewish rabbinic scholar Saadia Gaon (882-942), who lived in Baghdad, draws its inspiration from Christian theological literature as well as from Islamic models. The Kitab al-Tawhid, the Book of Divine Unity, by Saadia’s Karaite contemporary, Jacob Qirqisani (d. 930), is unfortunately lost.
This makes the German Islamologist Sabine Schmidtke say:
The new tradition of Jewish rational thought that emerged in the course of the ninth century was, in its initial phase, mainly informed by Christian theological literature, both in its content and methodology. Increasingly, specifically Mutazilite Islamic ideas, such as theodicy [*1] and human free will, as well as the emphasis on the oneness of God (tawhid), resonated among Jewish thinkers, many of whom eventually adopted the entire doctrinal system of the Mutazila. The now emerging ‘Jewish Mutazila’ dominated Jewish theological thought for centuries to come.
Leaving aside, therefore, the errors that were very real, it has to be recognized and underscored that the optimistic philosophical vision of Mutazilism (reason, free will, responsibility, perfectibility of man) strongly contributed to the emergence of a true « golden age » of Arab culture and sciences.
Finally, it is not uninteresting to note that today, “neo-Mutazilite” currents are appearing in reaction to obscurantist doctrines and the barbaric acts they provoke. For the Egyptian reformist thinker Ahmad Amin, “the death of mutazilism was the greatest misfortune that befell Muslims; they committed a crime against themselves.”
In 762, the second Abbasid caliph Al-Mansur (714-775) (“the victorious”) began construction of a new capital, Baghdad. Called Madinat-As-Salam (City of Peace), it houses the court palace, the mosque and the administrative buildings. Built on a circular plan, it is inspired by previous traditions, notably the one that gave birth to the Iranian city of Gur (current name: Firouzabad).
We are in the heart of fertile Mesopotamia, the “land between the rivers”, essentially the Euphrates and the Tigris, both of which have their source in Turkey. It is here that the Sumerians invented irrigation, agriculture (cereals and livestock) [*3], and writing (3400 years BC), starting in the 10th millennium BC.
Baghdad, a powerful and refined city, reigned over the entire East and became the capital of the Arab world. Crossed by the Tigris River, populated today by some 10 million inhabitants, it remains the largest city in Iraq as well as the second most populated city in the Arab world (behind Cairo in Egypt).
The Abbasid cities were built on huge sites. The palaces and mosques of Samarra, the new capital from 836, stretch along the banks of the Tigris for 40 kilometers. To match the scale of the sites, monumental buildings were erected, such as the Abu Dulaf Mosque or the Great Mosque of Samarra, which had no equivalent elsewhere. Its curious spiral minaret (52 meters high) inspired in the following centuries the Western representations of the Tower of Babel.
Moreover, by relying on an extremely disciplined and obedient army from Khorassan (a region in north-eastern Iran) [*2], as well as on an elaborate system of stagecoaches and mail distribution, the Abbasid rulers managed to increase their hold on the provincial governors. The latter, who in the time of the Omayyad caliphs paid little tax on the pretext that they had to spend locally for the defense of the caliphate’s borders, now had to pay the taxes imposed by the ruler.
The New “Paper” Road
After the military victory against the Chinese in the battle of Talas (a city in present-day Kyrgyzstan) in 751, the year that marked the most eastern advance of the Abbasid armies, Baghdad opened up to Chinese and Indian cultures.
The Abbasid quickly assimilated a number of Chinese techniques, in particular paper-making, an art developed in Samarkand (capital of Sogdiana, now in Uzbekistan), another stopover city on the Silk Roads. The craftsmen of this city smoothed the paper with an agate stone. The resulting extremely smooth and shiny surface absorbed less ink and as a result, both sides of the same sheet became usable. The Chinese, who had invented silk paper, did not need to smooth their paper because they wrote with brushes and not with pens.
Hâroun al-Rachîd was very interested in the industrial production of paper. He ordered the use of paper in all the administrations of the Empire: it is easier to manufacture, less expensive and more secure than silk, because one cannot easily erase what is written on it. He developed the paper factories of Samarkand and established similar ones in Baghdad, Damascus and Tiberias around 1046 – the paper of Tripoli or Damascus was then referred to, and its quality was considered better than that of Samarkand – in Cairo before 1199, where it was used as a packaging for goods, and in Yemen at the beginning of the 13th century. At the same time, several paper factories were established in North Africa. There were 104 paper factories in Fez, Morocco, before 1106, and 400 paper mills between 1221 and 1240. They will emerge in Andalusia, Spain, in Jativa near Valencia in 1054 and in Toledo in 1085.
The first Abbasid caliphs led the economic transition from the Umayyad model of tribute, booty or the sale of slaves to an economy based on agriculture, manufacturing, trade and taxes. The introduction of more energy dense modes of technologies modes of energy (compared to the former ones), will revolutionize irrigation and agriculture:
–Construction of canals ensuring irrigation and limiting flooding;
–Construction of dams and the exploitation of the mechanical energy they produce;
–Construction of water mills;
–Use of tidal energy;
–Construction of windmills;
–Distillation of kerosene used as fuel for lamps and used since. [*4]
Industrial uses of water mills in the Islamic world date back to the 7th century. During the time of the Crusades, all provinces of the Islamic world had operating mills, from al-Andalus and North Africa to the Middle East and Central Asia.
These mills performed various agricultural and industrial tasks.
When Erasmus’ follower Cervantes’ Don Quichote starts attacking the windmills of La Mancha, a Spanish region where Arab influence was notable, he not only ironially mocks the cult of chivalry, but also the insane undertaking called the crusades.
Irrigation, inherited from the ancient world (floods of the Nile in Egypt, canals in Mesopotamia, pendulum wells (shadoof), water wheels used to raise water (noria), dams in Transoxiana, Khuzistan and Yemen, underground galleries at the foot of the mountains in Iran (qanat) or in the Maghreb (khettara), is organized thanks to a solid community organization and the intervention of the State.
Abbasid artisans and engineers will develop machines (such as pumps) incorporating crankshafts and use gears in mills and water-lifting machines. They will also use the dams to provide additional power to watermills and water-lifting machines. Such advances will allow the mechanization of many agricultural and industrial tasks and free up the workforce for more creative occupations.
Agricultural production gains in diversity : cereals (wheat, rice), fruits (apricots, citrus fruits), vegetables, olive oil (Syria and Palestine), sesame (Iraq), roe, rapeseed, flax or castor oil (Egypt), wine production (Syria, Palestine, Egypt), dates, bananas (Egypt), sugar cane.
Breeding remains important for food, for the supply of raw materials (wool, leather) and for transport (camels, dromedaries, horses). Sheep are present everywhere but buffalo farming is developing (marshes of lower Iraq or Orontes). Small poultry, pigeon and bee farms are in high demand. The people’s diet is predominantly vegetarian (rice cake, wheat porridge, vegetables and fruits).
A number of industries will emerge from this agro-industrial revolution, including the first textile factories, the production of ropes, silk and, as noted above, the manufacture of paper. Finally, metalworking, glassware, ceramics, tooling and crafts also experience high levels of growth during this period.
Charlemagne, Baghdad and China
Finally, in the eighth and ninth centuries, seeking to counter the Omayyad and the Byzantine Empire, Abbasid and Carolingian Franks conclude several agreements and alliances.
Three diplomatic missions were sent by Charlemagne to the court of Hâroun al-Rachîd and the latter sent at least two embassies to Charlemagne. The caliph sent him many gifts, such as spices, fabrics, an elephant and an automatic clock, described in the Frankish Royal Annals of 807. It marked the 12 hours with copper balls falling on a plate at each hour, and also had twelve horsemen who appeared in turn at the same intervals.
The same caliph sent a diplomatic mission to Chang’an (now called Xi’an), capital of the Tang dynasty. Chang’an being the eastern terminus of the Silk Road, the western market of Chang’an became the center of world trade. According to the record of the Tang Six Authority, more than 300 nations and regions had trade relations with Chang’an.
Maritime Silk Road
These diplomatic relations with China were contemporary with the maritime expansion of the Muslim world into the Indian Ocean and the Far East. Apart from the Nile, Tigris and Euphrates, navigable rivers were uncommon, so transport by sea was very important. The ships of the caliphate began to sail from Siraf, the port of Basra, to India, the Straits of Malacca and Southeast Asia.
Arab merchants dominated trade in the Indian Ocean until the arrival of the Portuguese in the 16th century. Hormuz was an important center for this trade. There was also a dense network of trade routes in the Mediterranean, along which Muslim countries traded with each other and with European powers such as Venice or Genoa.
The Silk Road crossing Central Asia passed through the Abbasid caliphate between China and Europe. At that time, Canton, or Khanfu in Arabic, a port of 200,000 people in southern China, had a large community of traders from Muslim countries. And when the Chinese Emperor Yongle decided to send his famous flotilla of ships to Africa, he chose Admiral Zheng He (1371-1433), a court eunuch who was born a Muslim. And when in 1497 the Portuguese captain Vasco da Gama reached the Kenyan city of Malindi, he was able to obtain an Arab pilot who took him directly to Kozhikode (Calicut) in India. In short, a sailor who knew how to navigate on the stars.
Scientific and cultural renaissance
Thus, it is under the caliphate of Hâroun al-Rachîd and his son Al-Ma’mûn, that Baghdad and the Abbasids will experience a real golden age, both in the sciences (philosophy, astronomy, mathematics, medicine, etc.) and in the arts (architecture, poetry, music, painting, etc.). For the British writer Jim Al-Khalili, “the fusion of Greek rationalism and Mutazilite Islam will give rise to a humanist movement of a type that will hardly be seen before 15th century Italy.”
In the field of sciences, an assimilation of Hellenistic, Indian and Persian astronomical doctrines took place very early. Several Sanskrit [*5] and Pehlevi [*6] writings were translated into Arabic.
Indian works by the astronomer Aryabhata (476-560), a prominent scientist of the Indian Gupta Renaissance, and the mathematician Brahmagupta (590-668) were cited early on by their Arabic counterparts. A famous translation into Arabic appeared around 777 under the title Zij al-Sindhind (or Indian Astronomical Tables). Sources indicate that this text was translated after the trip of an Indian astronomer invited to the court of the Abbasid caliph Al-Mansur in 770. The Arabs also adopted the sines (inherited from Indian mathematics) which they preferred to the chords used by Greek astronomers. From the same period, a collection of astronomical chronicles compiled over two centuries in Sassanid Persia and known in Arabic as the Zij al-Shah (or Royal Tables).
In the field of music, the Persian-born Arab musician Ishaq al-Mawsili (767-850), among others, can be mentioned. A composer of about two hundred songs, he was also a virtuoso on the oud (a kind of lute with a short neck but no frets). He is credited with the first system of codification of learned Arabic music.
Respecting the visual arts, let us first stress that, contrary to the prevailing opinion, the Koran does not prohibit figurative images. There is no explicitly stated and universally accepted “ban” on images of living figures in Islamic legal texts. On the other hand, Islam, like other major religions, condemns the worship of idols.
From the eighth to the fifteenth century, numerous historical and poetic texts, both Sunni and Shi’a, many of which appeared in Turkish and Persian contexts, include admirable depictions of the Prophet Muhammad. The purpose of these images was not only to praise and pay homage to the Prophet, but represent occasions and central elements for the practice of Muslim faith.
In this respect, the book by the German art historian Hans Belting with the catchy title Florence & Baghdad, Renaissance Art and Arab Science (2011) is not only misleading but downright outrageous. Belting presents “Islam” as an aniconic faith (banning all human and animal representations), while in reality, besides exquisite calligraphy and geometric patterns in search for the infinite, representations of men and animals are an essential part of Islamic artistic expression.
In addition, other religions have experienced strong outbreaks of iconoclasm. For example, and this is one of the reasons why so little is known about ancient Greek painting, between 726 and 843, the Byzantine Empire ordered the systematic destruction of images representing Christ or the saints, whether they were mosaics adorning church walls, painted images or book illuminations.
From there on, Belting, for whom Islam is in essence an aniconic civilization, has great difficulty in demonstrating what he announces in the title: the influence of Arab science (notably Ibn al-Haytam work on human vision) on the Renaissance in Florence (in particular its definition of “geometric perspective”). In fact, presenting himself as an erudite, peaceful and “objective” scholar, Belting’s book feeds into the bellicose thesis of a supposed “Clash” of civilizations, while claiming the opposite.
The first manifestations of pictorial art in the Arab-Muslim world date back to the Omayyad period (660-750). It is from this period that date the famous “desert castles”, such as Qusayr ‘Amra, in Eastern Jordan. Covered with wall paintings, these palaces reflect a contribution of the Byzantine, but also Persian Sassanid modes of representation. Thus, in the palace of Qusayr ‘Amra, used as a resort by the Caliph or his princes for sport and pleasure, the frescoes depict constellations of the zodiac, hunting scenes, fruits and women in the bath.
In the field of literature, Al-Rashid built up a vast library including a collection of rare books as well as thousands of books that kings and princes of the ancient world offered him.
For example, Kalila and Dimna, also known as the Indian Fables of Bidpaï, one of the most popular works of world literature. Compiled in Sanskrit nearly two thousand years ago, these animal fables, from which Aesop and La Fontaine drew, were translated from China to Ethiopia. Translated into Arabic around 750 by Ibn al-Muqaffa, they were richly illustrated in the Arab, Persian and Turkish worlds. The oldest illustrated Arabic version was probably produced in Syria in the 1200s. The landscape is symbolized by a few elements: a strip of grass, shrubs with stylized leaves and flowers. Men and animals are represented with bright colors and simplified lines.
A true manual for the education for kings, one of the fables evokes the idea,
of creating a university dedicated to the study of languages, ancient and modern,
and to the preservation, in renewed forms, of the heritage of the human species…
And at the end of his story, the wise Bidpaï warns the young king Dabschelim:
I must insist on this last point: my stories do not require, at this stage, any commentary, any elucidation, any analysis on your part, on mine or on anyone else’s. Of all habits, the worst would be to waste the active substance in recipes for behavior. One must stubbornly resist the temptation to attach nice little rationalizations, snappy formulas, analytical summaries, symbolic markers or any other attempt of classification. Mental encapsulation perverts the remedy and renders it inoperative. It actually short-circuits the true purpose of storytelling, for to explain is to forget. It is also a form of hypocrisy – something toxic, an antidote to the truth. So let the stories you remember act on their own by their very diversity. Get familiar with them, but don’t make them a toy…
Also noteworthy is The Sessions of the poet and man of letters Al-Hariri (1054-1122) [*7], written at the end of the tenth century and which had a tremendous diffusion throughout the Arab world. The text, which recounts the adventures of the brigand Abu Zayd, is particularly suitable for illustration.
Al-Ma’mûn and the Houses of Wisdom (Bayt al-Hikma)
After a violent dispute with his brother who sought to remove him from power, Al-Ma’mûn, the youngest son of Al-Rashid, became the eighth Abbasid caliph in 813. He was particularly interested in the work of scholars, especially those who knew Greek. He gathered in Baghdad thinkers of all beliefs, whom he treated magnificently and with the greatest tolerance. They all wrote in Arabic, a language that allowed them to understand each other. He brought manuscripts from Byzantium to enrich the vast library of his father. Open to scholars, translators, poets, historians, physicians, astronomers, scientists and philosophers, this first public library became the basis of the Bayt Al-Hikma (the “Houses of Wisdom”) combining translation, teaching, research and even public health activities, long before the Western universities. It was here that all known scientific manuscripts of the time, especially Greek writings, were gathered for study.
In Baghdad, this cultural bubbling will not remain confined to the Court but will go down to the street as this description of Baghdad by Ibn Aqul (died in 1119) testifies:
“First there is the large space called the Bridge Square. Then the Birds’ Market, a market where one can find all kinds of flowers and on the sides of which are the elegant stores of the money changers. (…) Then the caterers’ market, the bakers’ market, the butchers’ market, the goldsmiths’ market, unrivaled for the beauty of its architecture: high buildings with teak beams, supporting corbelled rooms. Then there is the huge booksellers’ market, which is also the gathering place for scholars and poets, and the Rusafa market. In the markets of Karkh and the Gate of the Ark, the perfumers do not mix with the merchants of grease and products with unpleasant smells; in the same way the merchants of new objects do not mix with the merchants of used objects.”
Persia, the Nestorians and medicine
As a model for the Houses of Wisdom, the Persian influence and precedents are often mentioned. It is true that the Barmakids, a family of Persian origin [*8], had a great influence on the first Abbasid caliphs.
In fact, al-Ma’mûn’s tutor was Jafar ben Yahya Barmaki (767-803), a member of the family of the Armenians and the son of the Persian vizier of his father Al-Rashid. The Persian elite who advised the Abbasid caliphs took a keen interest in the works of the Greeks, whose translation had begun during the reign of the Sassanid king Khosro I Anushirvan (531-579).
The latter founded the Academy of Medicine in Gondichapur. Many Nestorian (Christian) scribes and scholars had taken refuge there after the Council of Ephesus in 431. [*9]
The liturgical language of the Nestorians was Syriac, a Semitic dialect [*10].
Like the Jews, these Nestorian Christians possessed a cosmopolitan culture and a knowledge of languages (Syriac and Persian) that enabled them to act as intermediaries between Iran and its neighbors. And thanks to their access to the wisdom of ancient Greece, they were often employed as physicians. [*11]
The Academy of Medicine of Gondichapur [*12] had reached its peak in the 5th century thanks to the Syriac scholars expelled from Edessa. In this school, medicine was taught based on the translations of the Greek scholar and physician Claudius Galen. These teachings were put into practice in a large hospital, a tradition taken up in the Muslim world. This school was a meeting place for Greek, Syriac, Persian and Indian scholars, whose scientific influence was mutual. Heir to the Greek medical knowledge of Alexandria, the school of Gondichapur trained several generations of physicians at the court of the Sassanid and later at that of the Muslim Abbasid. As early as 765, the Abbasid caliph Al-Mansur, who reigned from 754 to 775, consulted the head of the Gondichapur hospital, Georgios ben Bakhtichou, and invited him to Baghdad. His descendants will work and teach medicine there. Long after the establishment of Islam, the Arab elites sent their sons to this Nestorian Christian school.
Timothy I (727-823) was the Christian patriarch of the Church of the East (“Nestorian”) between 780 and 823. His first decision was to establish the seat of his church in Baghdad, where it was to remain until the end of the thirteenth century, thus forging privileged links between the Nestorians and the Abbasid caliphs. A man with a good command of Syriac, Arabic, Greek and eventually Pehlevi, Timothy enjoyed the consideration of the Abbasid caliphs Al-Mahdi, Al-Rashid and Al-Ma’mûn.
During his forty-three years of pontificate, the Eastern Church lived in peace. Moreover, the Nestorians played a major role in the spread of Christianity in Central Asia as far as China via the Silk Road. In Central Asia, before the arrival of Islam, it was Sogdian, (the Iranian language of Sogdia and its capital Samarkand) that served as the lingua franca on the Silk Road. [*13]
Translating, understanding, teaching, improving
In Baghdad and Basra, in the Houses of Wisdom, the histories and texts collected after the collapse of the empire of Alexander the Great were translated and made available to scholars, texts initially collated and translated from Syriac into Persian under the aegis of the Sassanid emperors.
The Arab historian and economist Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406), who came from a large Andalusian family of Yemeni origin, paid tribute to this effort to preserve and disseminate the Greek heritage: “What happened to the sciences of the Persians whose writings, at the time of the conquest, were annihilated by order of Omar? Where are the sciences of the Chaldeans, the Assyrians, the inhabitants of Babylon? Where are the sciences that reigned among the Copts in the past? There is only one nation, that of the Greeks, whose scientific productions we possess exclusively, and that is thanks to the care that Al-Ma’mûn took in translating these works.”
These first translations into Arabic made available to the Arab-Muslim world hundreds of texts on philosophy, medicine, logic, mathematics, astronomy, music, etc., from Greek, Pehlevi, Syriac, Hebrew, Sanskrit, etc, including those of Plato, Aristotle, Pythagoras, Sushruta, Hippocrates, Euclid, Charaka, Ptolemy, Claudius Galen, Plotinus, Aryabhata and Brahmagupta.
They were accompanied by reflections, commentaries, translations of commentaries, etc. and gave rise to a new form of literature. According to the Nestorian patriarch Timothy I, it was at the request of the Caliph Al-Mahdi that he translated Aristotle’s Topics from Syriac into Arabic. He also wrote a treatise on astronomy entitled The Book of Stars, now lost.
An astrology and astronomy enthusiast, Al-Ma’mûn once made it a condition of peace with the Byzantine Empire to hand over a copy of the Almagest, Ptolemy’s main work, which was supposed to summarize all Greek astronomical knowledge. In 829, in the upper district of Baghdad, he built the first permanent observatory in the world, the Baghdad Observatory, allowing his astronomers, who had translated the Astronomical Treatise of the Greek Hipparchus of Nicaea (190-120 B.C.), as well as his star register, to methodically monitor the movement of the planets.
Here is what Sâ’id al-Andalusî (1029-1070) tells us about Al-Ma’mûn’s interest in astronomy and his efforts to advance it:
“As soon as Al-Ma’mûn became caliph, his noble soul made every effort to attain wisdom, and to this end he was particularly concerned with philosophy; moreover, the scholars of his time studied in depth a book by Ptolemy and understood the diagrams of a telescope that was drawn therein. So Al-Ma’mûn gathered all the great scholars present throughout the regions of the caliphate, and he asked them to build the same kind of instrument so that they could observe the planets in the same way as Ptolemy had done and those who had preceded him. The object was built and the scholars brought it to the city of al-Shamâsiyya in the region of Damascus in the Sham in the year 214 AH (829 AD). Through their observations they determined the exact duration of a solar year as well as the inclination of the sun, the exit of its center and the situation of its various faces, which allowed them to know the state and positions of the other planets. Then the death of the caliph al-Ma’mûn in 218 A.H. (833) put an end to this project, but they nevertheless completed the astronomical telescope and named it ‘the Ma’mûn telescope’”
Now, let me present you a short list of the main astronomers, mathematicians, thinkers, scholars and translators who frequented the Houses of Wisdom:
—Al-Jahiz (776-867). The encyclopedic approach of this Mutazilite is conceived as « a necklace gathering pearls » or as a garden which, with its plants, its harmonious organization and its fountains, represents in miniature the whole universe. He sketches the principle of the evolution of species;
—Al-Khwarizmi (780-850), (in Latin Algorithmus). This Persian mathematician and astronomer, according to some a Zoroastrian converted to Islam, would have been a follower of mutazilism. He is best known for having invented the method of solving mathematical problems, which is still used today and which is called algorithm. He studied for some time in Baghdad but it is also reported that he made a trip to India. Al Khawarizmi invented the word algebra (from the Arabic word j-b-r, meaning force, beat or multiply), introduced the Indian numerical system to the Muslim world, institutionalized the decimal system in mathematics, and formalized the testing of scientific hypotheses based on observations;
—Sahl Rabban al-Tabari (786-845), a Jewish astronomer and physician whose name means “The son of the rabbi of Tabaristan”. His son Ali was the tutor of al-Razi (865-925). An alchemist who became a physician, he is said to have isolated sulfuric acid and ethanol and was among the first to advocate their medical use. He greatly influenced the conception of hospital organization in connection with the training of future doctors. He was the object of much criticism for his opposition to Aristotelianism;
—Al-Hajjaj (786-823) made the first Arabic translation of Euclid’s Elements from Greek. He also translated Ptolemy’s Almagest;
—Al-Kindi (801-873) (known as Alkindus), considered the father of Arab philosophy, was a mutazilist. He was a prolific author (about 260 books) and explored all fields: geometry, philosophy, medicine, astronomy, physics, arithmetic, logic, music and psychology. Along with his colleagues, Al-Kindi was entrusted with the translation of the manuscripts of Greek scholars. After the death of Al-Ma’mun in 833, he was considered too much of a mutazilist, fell into disgrace and his library was confiscated;
—The Banu Musa (“children of Moses”) brothers, three brilliant sons of a deceased astrologer, friend of the Caliph. Mohammed will work on astronomy; Ahmed and Hassan on the canals linking the Euphrates to the Tigris, a guarantee of the control and optimization of their respective floods. They published the Book of Ingenious Mechanisms, an inventory of new techniques and machines [*14];
—Hunayn ibn Ishâk (808-873) (known as Iohannitius). This Nestorian Christian was entrusted by Al-Ma’mun with the task of overseeing the quality of translations; a physician, he translated some of the works of the Greek physician Claudius Galen;
—Thabit ibn Qurra (836-901), a Syrian astronomer, mathematician, philosopher and musicologist;
—Qusta ibn Luqa (820-912), a Greek Byzantine physician, also a philosopher, mathematician, astronomer, naturalist and translator. A Christian of the Melkite Church, he spoke both Greek (his mother tongue) and Arabic, as well as Syriac. Considered, along with Hunayn ibn Ishaq, as one of the key figures in the transmission of Greek knowledge from Antiquity to the Arab-Muslim world. He was the translator of Aristarchus of Samos for whom the Earth revolved around the Sun and the author of a treatise on the astrolabe;
—Ibn Sahl (940-1000), in the footsteps of Al-Kindi, wrote a treatise on burning mirrors and lenses around 984, explaining how they can focus light on a point. His work was perfected by Ibn Al-Haytam (965-1040) (Latin name: Alhazen), whose writings reached as far as Leonardo da Vinci, via the Commentaries of Ghiberti. In Ibn-Sahl, we find the first mention of the law of refraction, later rediscovered in Europe as the law of Snell-Descartes.
Drawn into Bagdad for the opportunities it offered, these scholars generally worked in teams in a totally interdisciplinary spirit. Al-Ma’mûn, monitoring the science projets and noting the contradictions that arose from the translations of Greek, Persian and Indian sources, fixed with the scholars the next great scientific challenges to be met:
–To obtain, thanks to more efficient astronomical observatories, tables of astronomical ephemerides [*15] of greater precision than those of Ptolemy;
–To calculate with precision the circumference of the Earth with more advanced methods than those of the Greek astronomer Eratosthenes (3rd century BC);
–Produce a world map integrating the latest geographical knowledge concerning the distances between cities and the size of the continents;
–Deciphering the Egyptian hieroglyphs that Al-Ma’mûn had discovered during his trip to Egypt.
Translations of Plato
By asserting that what had advanced science at this period was the rediscovery of Aristotle and his purely empiricist method, one forgets the rediscovery of Plato, whose dialectical and hypothetical method has often done more for science than blind empiricism.
Al-Kindi’s intense involvement in the Platonic tradition is reflected in his summaries of the Apology and the Crito, and in his own works that paraphrase the Phaedo or are inspired by the Meno and the Symposium. The Syrian scientist Ibn al-Bitriq, a member of Al-Kindi’s “circle” in Bagdad, translated the Timaeus.
Otherwise, the House of Wisdom’s top translator, Hunayn ibn Ishaq and his circle translated the Greek physician Claudius Galen’s commentaries on the Timaeus, especially his On what Plato said in the Timaeus in a medical way and his On the doctrines of Hippocrates and Plato. And from Hunayn’s own works, we know that some of his students translated Galen’s lost Greek summaries of Plato’s Cratylus, Sophist, Parmenides, Euthydemus, Republic and Laws. Finally, the physician al-Razi presented and commented on Plutarch’s treatise On the Generation of the Soul in the Timaeus.
possible for some, complicated for others
In the West, the name of Al-Kindi is best known in association with The Apology of Al-Kindi, an anonymous text of the time. It is probably a fictitious dialogue between two believers, one Muslim (Abdallah Al-Hashimi), the other Christian (Al-Kindi), both criticizing the other’s and praising one’s own religion and inviting the other to join him! This dialogue supposedly took place at the time of the caliph Al-Ma’mûn. What we know about the open-mindedness of the Caliph does not contradict this assertion. The earliest known mention of the existence of this Apology came to us from Al-Biruni (973-1048).
The manuscript of Al-Kindi’s Apology was translated into Latin in 1142 at the request of Peter the Venerable (1092-1156), grand abbot of the abbey of Cluny, the most powerful and important in Latin Europe. That same year, after visiting Toledo, he conceived the idea of a systematic refutation of the Muslim religion, which he considered heretical and errant.
Here is how he explains the translation he has just ordered of the Koran (the Lex Mahumet pseudoprophete) by a team of translators (including an Arab) brought together for the occasion:
“Whether one gives the Mohammedan error the shameful name of heresy or the infamous one of paganism, one must act against it, that is, write. But the Latins and especially the moderns, the ancient culture perishing, according to the word of the Jews who once admired the polyglot apostles, do not know any other language than that of their native land. So they could neither recognize the enormity of this error nor stop it. So my heart was inflamed and a fire burned in my meditation. I was indignant that the Latins did not know the cause of such a perdition and their ignorance robbed them of the power to resist it; for no one answered, for no one knew. So I went to find specialists in the Arabic language which has allowed this deadly poison to infest more than half the globe. I persuaded them, by dint of prayers and money, to translate from Arabic into Latin the history and doctrine of this wretched man and his very law, which is called Koran”.
Accused hence “the Arabic language which allowed this deadly poison (Islam) to infest more than half of the globe”…
This declaration of war was undoubtedly required to motivate his troops. Let us recall that Eudes de Châtillon, the grand prior of the abbey of Cluny, who will become Pope Urban II in 1088, will be, in 1095, at the origin of the first crusade sending the bandits who ravaged France, to go and wage war elsewhere.
The decline and Al-Ghazali
Let us return to the Abbasids. As we have said, with the arrival in power of Al-Mutawakkil in 847, mutazilism was removed from power and the Houses of Wisdom were reduced to simple libraries. This did not prevent a traveller, describing his visit to Baghdad in 891, from reporting that the city contained more than one hundred public libraries. Following the Bayt Al-Hikma model, small libraries were founded on every street corner of the city…
Entangled in endless theological debates between experts and won by sectarianism, the mutazilist elite cut itself off from a people who were losing confidence and eventually welcomed with a sense of relief the obscurantist doctrine of Al-Ghâzalî (1058-1111) (Latin name: Algazel), the worst enemy of the mutazilites.
Al-Ghâzalî proposed a radical solution: philosophy is only right when it agrees with religion – which, according to Al-Ghâzalî, is rare. This leads him to radicalize his position, and to attack more and more the Greco-Arab philosophy, guilty, in his eyes, of blasphemy.
Where someone like the Persian Ibn Sina (980-1037) (Latin name: Avicenna), author of the Canons or Precepts of Medicine (around 1020), crossed Greek philosophy and Muslim religion, Al-Ghazali wanted to filter the first through the second.
Hence his most famous and important work, The Incoherence of the Philosophers, written in 1095. In it, he denounces the “pride” of the philosophers who claim to “rewrite the Koran” through Plato and Aristotle. Their error is above all a logical one, as the title of the book itself indicates, which underlines their “incoherence”: they want to complete the Koran with Greek philosophy, whereas the Koran comes later in history and therefore does not need to be completed. He therefore promotes a much more literal approach to the Koranic text, whereas Ibn Sina defended, cautiously it is true, a metaphorical approach. In truth, it is Aristotelianism and nominalism that triumph.
From the eleventh century onward, the Abbasid, whose Empire was fragmenting, called upon the Turkish Seljuk princes to protect them against the Shiites, supported by the Fatimid caliphate of Cairo. Gradually, the Turkish and Mongol troops, coming from Central Asia, ended up governing the security of the Abbasid caliph while letting him exercise his religious power.
Then, in 1258, they deposed the last caliph and confiscated his title of successor of the Prophet, which gave them religious power over the four schools of Sunnism. In order to subdue the Arab and Persian populations, the Seljuk Turks created the madrasa (Koranic school) where the conservative doctrine of Acharite Sunnism was taught to the exclusion of the dialectical Mutazilite theology, considered an ideological threat to Turkish authority over the Arabs.
The Abbasid Empire declined as a result of administrative negligence, abandonment of canal maintenance, flood-induced famine, social injustice, slave revolts, and religious tensions between Shiites and Sunnis. At the end of the 9th century, the Zendj, black slaves (from Zanzibar) who worked in the marshes of the lower Iraq, revolted several times, even occupying Basra and threatening Baghdad. The Caliph restored order at the cost of an unprecedentedly violent repression. The rebels were only crushed in 883 at the cost of many victims. The empire did not recover.
In 1019, the Caliph forbade any new interpretation of the Koran, radically opposing the Mutazilite school. This is a brutal stop to the development of critical thinking and intellectual and scientific innovations in the Arab Empire, the consequences of which are still felt today.
Since the dawn of time (it is the case to say it), man has tried to understand the organization of the stars in the environment near the Earth.
Installations such as Stonehenge (2800 BC) in England allowed the first observers to identify the cycles that determine the place and the exact day when certain stars rise. All these observations posed paradoxes: around us, the earth appears relatively flat, but the Moon or the Sun that we perceive with the same eyes seem spherical. The Sun « rises » and « sets », our senses tell us, but where is the reality?
It seems that Thales of Miletus (625-547 BC) was the first to have really wondered about the shape of the Earth. He thought that the Earth was shaped like a flat disk on a vast expanse of water. Then Pythagoras and Plato imagined a spherical shape, which they considered more beautiful and rational. Finally Aristotle reported some observational evidence such as the rounded shape of the Earth’s shadow on the Moon during eclipses.
The Greek scientist Eratosthenes (276 BC- 194 BC), chief librarian of the Alexandria library, then calculated the Earth’s circumference. He had noticed that at noon, on the day of the summer solstice, there was no shadow on the side of Aswan. By measuring the shadow of a stick planted in Alexandria at the same time and knowing the distance between the two cities, he deduced the circumference of the Earth with a rather astonishing accuracy: 39,375 kilometers against some 40,000 kilometers for current estimates.
Between Ptolemy’s Almagest and Copernicus’ De Revolutionibus, as we have said, Arabic astronomy constitutes “the missing link”.
The original title of Ptolemy’s work is The Mathematical Composition. The Arabs, very impressed by this work, called it “megiste”, from the Greek meaning “very great”, to which they added the Arabic article “al”, to give “al megiste” which became Almageste.
It is important to know that Ptolemy never had the opportunity to re-read his treatise as a whole. After writing the first of the thirteen books of his work, the one on “The Fundamental Postulates of Astronomy”, Ptolemy passed it on to copyists who reproduced it and distributed it widely without waiting for the completion of the other twelve books…
In the end, confronted with observations that called into question his own observations and in order to rectify his errors, Ptolemy wrote another work, after the Almagest, entitled Planetary Hypotheses. The author returned to the models presented in the Almagest while making modifications to the average motions (of the planets) to take into account the latest observations. However, his Planetary Hypotheses went beyond the mathematical model of the Almagest to present a physical realization of the universe as a set of nested spheres, in which he used the epicycles of his planetary model to calculate the dimensions of the universe. Finally, the Almagest also contains a description of 1022 stars grouped into 48 constellations.
Ptolemy also presents stereographic projection invented by Hipparchus, the theoretical basis for the construction of the astrolabe by Arab astronomers.
In the ninth century, when the Arabs became interested in astronomy, knowledge was based on the following principles summarized in the work of Ptolemy:
–Ignoring the assertions of Aristarchus of Samos (310-230 BC) for whom the Earth revolved around the Sun, Ptolemy resumed in the second century AD the thesis of Eudoxus of Cnidus (approx. 400-355 BC) and especially Hipparchus (180 to 125 BC) to assert that the Earth is a motionless sphere placed at the center of the world (geocentrism);
–Ptolemy agreed with Plato, who was inspired by Pythagoras, that the circle was the only perfect form, and that the other bodies turning around the Earth did so according to circular and uniform trajectories (without acceleration or deceleration);
–Yet everyone knew that some planets do not follow these perfect rules. In the 6th century, the neo-Platonic philosopher Simplicius, in his Commentary on Aristotle’s Physics, wrote: “Plato then poses this problem to the mathematicians: what are the uniform and perfectly regular circular motions that should be taken as hypotheses, so that we can save the appearances that the wandering stars present?” ;
–In order to account for the « apparent retrograde motion » of Mars, Hipparchus will introduce other secondary perfect figures, again circles. The articulation and interaction of these “epicycles” gave the appearance of sticking with the observed facts. Ptolemy took up this approach;
–However, the more the precision of astronomical measurements improved, the more anomalies were discovered and the more it was necessary to multiply these interlocking “epicycles”. It quickly became very complicated and inextricable;
–The universe is divided into a sub-lunar region where everything is created and therefore perishable, and the rest of the universe, supra-lunar, which is imperishable and eternal.
Hipparchus of Nicea
The Arab astronomers, for both religious and intellectual reasons that we mentioned at the beginning of this article, initially discovered and then, on the basis of increasingly detailed observations, challenged Hipparchus’ hypotheses, which were the basis of the Ptolemaic model.
Hipparchus imagined a system of coordinates for the stars based on longitudes and latitudes. We also owe him the use of parallels and meridians to locate the Earth as well as the division of the circumference into 360° inherited from the sexagesimal calculation (base 60) of the Babylonians.
In astronomy, his works on the rotation of the Earth and the planets are numerous. Hipparchus explains the mechanism of the seasons by noting the obliquity of the ecliptic: the inclination of the Earth’s axis of rotation. By comparing his observations with older ones, he discovered the precession of the equinoxes due to this tilt: the Earth’s axis of rotation makes a conical movement from East to West and of revolution 26,000 years. Thus in a few millennia, the North Pole will no longer be found with the North Star (Polaris) but with another star, Vega.
Based on Hipparchus, the Arabs perfected and fabricated an important instrument for measuring positions: the astrolabe. This “mathematical jewel” allows to measure the position of stars, planets, to know the time on Earth. Later, the astrolabe was replaced by more precise and easier to use instruments, such as the quadrant, the sextant or the octant.
With the manuscripts at their disposal in the Houses of Wisdom and the observatories of Baghdad and Damascus, the Arab astronomers had texts of an incredible richness but often in flagrant contradiction with their own observations of the movements of the Moon and the Sun. It is from this confrontation that later discoveries were born. The Arabs introduced a lot of mathematics to solve problems, especially trigonometry and algebra.
The Arab astronomers
In order to present the main Arab astronomers and their contributions, here is an excerpt from J. P. Maratray’s remarkable article L’astronomie arabe.
—Al-Khwarizmi (783-850) called Algorithmi.
A mathematician, geographer and astronomer of Persian origin, he was a member of the « House of Wisdom ». He is one of the founders of Arab mathematics, inspired by Indian knowledge, in particular the decimal system, fractions, square roots… He is credited with the term “algorithm”. Algorithms are known since antiquity, and the name of Al-Khwarizmi (Algorithmi in Latin) will be given to these sequences of repeated elementary operations. He is also the author of the term “algebra”, which is the title of one of his works on the subject. He was also the first to use the letter x to designate an unknown in an equation. He wrote the first book of algebra (al-jabr) in which he described a systematic method of solving second degree equations and proposed a classification of these equations. He introduced the use of numbers that we still use today. These “Arabic” numbers are in fact of Indian origin, but were used mathematically by Al-Khwarizmi. He adopted the use of the zero, invented by the Indians in the 5th century, and adopted by the Arabs through him. The Arabs will translate the Indian word “sunya” by “as-sifr”, which becomes “ziffer” and “zephiro”. Ziffer will give “number”, and zephiro, “zero”. Al-Khwarizmi established astronomical tables (position of the five planets, the Sun and the Moon) based on Hindu and Greek astronomy. He studied the position and visibility of the Moon and its eclipses, the Sun and the planets. It is the first completely Arabic astronomical work. A crater of the Moon bears his name.
—Al-Farghani (805-880) called Alfraganus (mentioned in Dante’s Commedia).
Born in Ferghana in present-day Uzbekistan, he wrote in 833 the Elements of Astronomy, based on the Greek knowledge of Ptolemy. He was one of the most remarkable astronomers in the service of Al-Ma’mûn, and a member of the House of Wisdom. He introduced new ideas, such as the fact that the precession of the equinoxes must affect the position of the planets, and not only that of the stars. His work was translated into Latin in the 12th century, and had a great impact on the very closed circles of Western European astronomers. He determined the diameter of the Earth, which he estimated at 10500 km. We also owe him a work on sundials and another on the astrolabe.
—Al-Battani (850-929) called Albatenius.
He observed the sky from Syria. He is sometimes called “the Ptolemy of the Arabs”. His measurements are remarkably accurate. He determined the length of the solar year, the value of the precession of the equinoxes, the inclination of the ecliptic. He noted that the eccentricity of the Sun is variable, without going so far as to interpret this phenomenon as an elliptical trajectory. He wrote a catalog of 489 stars. We owe him the first use of trigonometry in the study of the sky. It is a much more powerful method than the geometrical one of Ptolemy. His main work is The Book of Tables. It is composed of 57 chapters. Translated into Latin in 1116 by Plato of Tivoli, it will greatly influence the European astronomers of the Renaissance.
—Al-Soufi (903-986) known as Azophi.
Persian astronomer, he translated Greek works including the Almagest and improved the estimates of the magnitudes of stars. In 964, he published « The Book of Fixed Stars », where he drew constellations. He seems to have been the first to report an observation of the large Magellanic cloud (a nebula), visible in Yemen, but not in Isfahan. Similarly, we owe him a first representation of the Andromeda galaxy, probably already observed before him. He described it as « a small cloud » in the mouth of the Arabian constellation of the Great Fish. Its name (Azophi) was given to a crater on the Moon.
—Al-Khujandi (circa 940- circa 1000).
He was a Persian astronomer and mathematician. He built an observatory in Ray, near Tehran, with a huge sextant, constructed in 994. It is the first instrument able to measure angles more precise than the minute of angle. He measures with this instrument the obliquity of the ecliptic, by observing the meridian passages of the Sun. He found 23° 32′ 19 ». Ptolemy found 23° 51′, and the Indians, much earlier, 24°. The idea of the natural variation of this angle never occurred to the Arabs. They discussed for a long time about the accuracy of the measurements, which made their science advance.
—Ibn Al-Haytam (965-1039) called Alhazen.
A mathematician and optician born in Basra in present-day Iraq, he was asked by the Egyptian authorities to solve the problem of the Nile floods. His solution was the construction of a dam towards Aswan. He gave up in front of the enormity of the task (the dam was finally built in 1970!). Faced with this “failure”, he feigned madness until the death of his boss. He made a critical assessment of Ptolemy’s theses and those of his predecessors, and wrote Doubts on Ptolemy. He draws up a catalog of the inconsistencies, without however proposing an alternative solution. Among the inconsistencies he noted were the variation in the apparent diameter of the Moon and the Sun, the non-uniformity of the allegedly circular motions, the variation in the position of the planets in latitude, the organization of the Greek spheres. Observing that the Milky Way has no parallax, he placed it very far from the Earth, in any case further away than Aristotle’s sub-lunar sphere. Despite his doubts, he maintains the central place of the Earth in the universe. Ibn Al-Haytam takes up the work of Greek scholars, from Euclid to Ptolemy, for whom the notion of light is closely linked to the notion of vision: the main question being whether the eye has a passive role in this process or whether it sends a kind of fluid to “interrogate” the object. Through his studies of the mechanism of vision, Ibn Al-Haytam showed that the two eyes were an optical instrument, and that they actually saw two separate images. If the eye sent this fluid, one could see at night, he speculated. He understood that the sunlight reflected off the objects and then entered the eye. But for him, the image is formed on the lens… He took up Ptolemy’s ideas on the rectilinear propagation of light, accepted the laws of reflection on a mirror, and sensed that light has a finite, but very great speed. He studied refraction, the deviation of a light ray as it passes from one medium to another, and predicted a change in the speed of light as it passes. But he could never calculate the angle of refraction. He found that the phenomenon of twilight is related to the refraction of sunlight in the atmosphere, which he tried to measure the height, without success. Already known in antiquity, we owe him a very precise description and the use for experimental purposes of the dark room (camera obscura), a black room that projects an image on a wall through a small hole drilled in the opposite wall. The result of all this optical research is recorded in his Treatise on Optics, which took him six years to write and was translated into Latin in 1270. [*16] In mechanics, he asserted that an object in motion continues to move as long as no force stops it. This is the principle of inertia before the letter. An asteroid bears his name: 59239 Alhazen.
Certainly one of the greatest scholars of medieval Islam, originally from Persia, he was interested in astronomy, geography, history, medicine and mathematics, and philosophy in general. He wrote more than 100 works. He was also a tax collector and a great traveler, especially in India, where he studied language, religion and science. At the age of 17, he calculated the latitude of his native town of Kath (in Persia, now in Uzbekistan). At the age of 22, he had already written several short works, including one on cartography. In astronomy, he observed the eclipses of the Moon and the Sun. He is one of the first to evaluate the errors on his measurements and those of his predecessors. He noticed a difference between the average speed and the apparent speed of a star. He measured the radius of the Earth at 6339.6 km (the correct figure is 6378 km), a result used in Europe in the 16th century. During his travels, he met Indian astronomers who supported heliocentrism and the rotation of the Earth on its axis. He will always be skeptical, because this theory implies the movement of the Earth. But he will ask himself the question: « Here is a problem difficult to solve and to refute ». He believes that this theory does not lead to any mathematical problems. He refuted astrology, arguing that this discipline is more conjectural than experimental. In mathematics, he developed the calculation of proportions (rule of three), demonstrated that the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter is irrational (future number Pi), calculated trigonometric tables, and developed methods of geodesic triangulations.
—Ali Ibn Ridwan (988-1061).
Egyptian astronomer and astrologer, he wrote several astronomical and astrological works, including a commentary on another book of Claudius Ptolemy, the Tetrabible. He observed and commented on a supernova (SN 1006), probably the brightest in history. Its magnitude is estimated today, according to the testimonies that have come down to us, at -7.5! It remained visible for more than a year. He explains that this new star had two to three times the apparent diameter of Venus, a quarter of the brightness of the Moon, and that it was low on the southern horizon. Other western observations corroborate this description, and place it in the constellation of the Wolf.
—From the 11th to the 16th century.
After a first phase, more important observatories were built. The first of them, model of the following ones, is that of Maragheh, in the current Iran. Their purpose was to establish planetary models and to understand the movement of the stars. (…) The school thus constituted will have its apogee with Ibn Al-Shâtir (1304-1375). Other observatories will follow, such as the one in Samarkand in the 15th century, Istanbul in the early 16th century, and, in the West, the one of Tycho Brahe in Uraniborg (Denmark at that time) at the end of the 16th century. The new models were no longer Ptolemaic inspired, but remained geocentric. The physics of the time still refused to put the Earth in motion and to remove it from the center of the world. These models were inspired by the Greek epicycles, keeping the circles, but simplifying them. For example, Al-Tûsî proposes a system comprising a circle rolling inside another circle of double radius. This system transforms two circular motions into an alternating rectilinear motion, and explains the variations of the latitude of the planets. Moreover, it accounts for the variations of the apparent diameters of the stars. But to go further, it will be necessary to change the reference system, which the Arabs refused to do. This change will occur with the Copernican revolution, during the Renaissance, in which the Earth loses its status as the center of the world.
—Al-Zarqali (1029-1087) said Arzachel.
Mathematician, astronomer and geographer born in Toledo, Spain, he discussed the possibility of the movement of the Earth. Like others, his writings will be known to Europeans of the sixteenth and seventeenth century. He designed astrolabes, and established the Toledo Tables, which were used by the great Western navigators such as Christopher Columbus, and served as a basis for the Alphonsine Tables. He established that the eccentricity of the Sun varies, more precisely that the center of the circle on which the Sun rotates moves periodically away from or towards the Earth. A crater of the Moon bears his name, as well as a bridge of Toledo on the Tagus.
—Omar Al-Khayyam (1048-1131).
Known for his poetry, he was also interested in astronomy and mathematics. He became director of the Isfahan observatory in 1074. He created new astronomical tables even more precise, and determined the duration of the solar year with great accuracy, given the instruments used. It is more accurate than the Gregorian year, created five centuries later in Europe. He reformed the Persian calendar by introducing a leap year (Djelalean reform). In mathematics, he was interested in third degree equations by demonstrating that they can have several solutions (he found some of them geometrically). He wrote several texts on the extraction of the cubic roots, and a treaty of algebra.
Astronomer and mathematician, born in the city of Tus in present-day Iran, he built and directed the observatory of Maragheh. He studied the works of Al-Khayyam on proportions, and was interested in geometry. On the astronomical side, he commented on the Almagest and completed it, like several astronomers (Al-Battani…) before him. He estimates the obliquity of the ecliptic at 23°30′.
Persian mathematician and astronomer, he witnessed a lunar eclipse in 1406 and wrote several astronomical works afterwards. He spent the rest of his life in Samarkand, under the protection of Prince Ulugh Beg (1394-1449) who founded a university there. He became the first director of the new observatory of Samarkand. His astronomical tables propose values with 4 (5 according to the sources) digits in sexagesimal notation of the sine function. He gives the way to pass from a system of coordinates to another. His catalog contains 1018 stars. He improves the tables of eclipses and visibility of the Moon. In his treatise on the circle, he obtained an approximate value of Pi with 9 exact positions in sexagesimal notation, that is to say 16 exact decimals! A record, since the next improvement of the estimation of Pi dates from the 16th century with 20 decimals. He leaves his name to a generalization of the Pythagorean theorem to any triangles. This is the Al-Kashi theorem. He introduced the decimal fractions, and acquired a great reputation which made him the last great Arab mathematician astronomer, before the West took over.
—Ulugh Beg (1394-1449).
Grandson of Tamerlan, prince of the Timurid (descendants of Tamerlan). Viceroy from 1410, he acceded to the throne in 1447. He was a remarkable scholar and a poor politician, a position he delegated to devote himself to science. His teacher was Qadi Zada al-Rumi (1364-1436) who developed in him a taste for mathematics and astronomy. He built several schools, including one in Samarkand in 1420 where he taught, and an observatory in 1429. He worked there with some 70 mathematicians and astronomers (including Al-Kashi) to write the Sultanian Tables published in 1437 and improved by Ulugh Beg himself shortly before his death in 1449. The accuracy of these tables will remain unequaled for more than 200 years, and they were used in the West. They contain the positions of more than 1000 stars. Their first translation dates from around 1500, and was made in Venice.
—Taqi Al-Din (1526-1585).
After a period as a theologian, he became the official astronomer of the Sultan in Istanbul. He built an observatory there with the aim of competing with those of European countries, including that of Tycho Brahe. The observatory was opened in 1577. He drew up the Zij tables (“the unbroken pearl”). He was the first to use comma notation, rather than the traditional sexagesimal fractions in use. He observed and described a comet, and predicted that it was a sign of victory for the Ottoman army. This forecast turns out to be erronous, and the observatory is destroyed in 1580… He then devotes himself to mechanics, and describes the functioning of a rudimentary steam engine, invents a water pump, and is fascinated by clocks and optics.
The destruction of the observatory of Istanbul marks the end of the Arab astronomical activity of the Middle Ages. It was not until the Copernican revolution that new progress was made, and what progress! Copernicus and his successors were certainly strongly inspired by the results of the Arabs through their works. Travel and direct contact between scientists of the time were rare. Since Westerners did not understand Arabic, Latin translations probably influenced the West, along with the works of some Greek philosophers who had questioned the central position of the Earth, as Aristarchus of Samos had proposed around 280 BC.
The modern observatory, in its conception, is a worthy successor of the Arab observatories of the late Middle Ages. Unlike the private observatories of the Greek philosophers, the Islamic observatory is a specialized astronomical institution, with its own premises, scientific staff, teamwork with observers and theoreticians, a director and study programs. They have recourse, as today, to increasingly large instruments, in order to constantly improve the accuracy of measurements.
The first of these observatories was built during the reign of Al-Ma’mûn in Bagdad in the 9th century. We have already mentioned the observatory of Ray, near Tehran and second city of the Abbasid Empire after Baghdad, with its monumental wall sextant dating from 994. To these must be added the observatories of Toledo and Cordoba in Spain, Baghdad and Isfahan.
Finally, the one in Maragheh in the north of present-day Iran, built in 1259 with funds collected to maintain hospitals and mosques. Al-Tusi worked there. Then came the era of the observatory of Samarkand, built in 1420 by the astronomer Ulugh Beg (1394-1449), whose remains were found in 1908 by a Russian team.
Much more than the crusades, it will be the Mongol offensives that will devastate entire sections of the Arab-Muslim civilization. Genghis Khan (1155-1227), to the great pleasure of some Westerners, will destroy the Muslim kingdoms of Khwarezm (1218) and Sogdia with Bukhara and Samarkand (1220). The great city of Merv in 1221. In 1238, his son will seize Moscow, then Kiev. In 1240, Poland and Hungary will be invaded. In 1241, Vienna was threatened.
Before bringing down the Song Dynasty in China in 1273, the Mongols turned against the Abbassid.
Hence, the Houses of Wisdom came to a brutal end on February 12, 1258 with the Mongol invasion of Baghdad led by Hulagu (Genghis Khan’s grandson), who killed the last Abbasid caliph Al-Mu’tassim (despite his surrender) and destroyed the city of Baghdad and its cultural heritage. Hulagu also ordered the massacre of the caliph’s entire family and entourage.
Mutazilism was banned and the magnificent collection of books and manuscripts in the House of Wisdom in Baghdad was thrown into the muddy water of the Tigris, which turned brown for a few days because of the inked papers of the books and manuscripts.
One report says that the Mongols exterminated twenty-four thousand scholars and an incalculable number of books were lost. Of Mutazilism, its doctrine was only known through the texts of the traditionalist theologians who had attacked it. It was only the discovery of the voluminous works of Abdel al Jabbar Ibn Ahmad in the 19th century that made it possible to understand the key role played my this current of thought in the Arab renaissance and the formation of current Muslim theology, whether Sunni or Shiite.
Closer to home, the Iraq war of 2003: until then, Iraq was the world’s largest publisher of scientific publications in Arabic. As a result of the chaos caused by a war waged in the name of “democracy” and “the war on terror”, both the National Library and the National Archives were looted and burned. The same happened to the Central Library of Pious Legacies, the Library of the Iraqi University of Sciences, as well as many public libraries in Baghdad, Mosul and Basra. The same was true for the archaeological treasures of the Iraqi Museum and its library. It seems that some people have declared war on civilization.
- A theodicy or « righteousness of God ») is an explanation of the apparent contradiction between the existence of evil and two characteristics peculiar to God: his omnipotence and his goodness.
- Sumer. The natural environment of the Sumerian country was not really favorable to the development of a productive agriculture: poor soils with a high content of salts harmful to the growth of plants, very high average temperatures, insignificant rainfall, and flooding of rivers coming in the spring, at harvest time, and not in the fall when the seeds need them to germinate, as is the case in Egypt. It was therefore the ingenuity and relentless labor of Mesopotamian farmers that enabled this country to become one of the granaries of the ancient Middle East. From the 6th millennium BC, the peasant communities developed an irrigation system which gradually branched out to cover a large area, thereby taking advantage of the advantage offered to them by the extremely flat relief of the Mesopotamian delta, where there was no no natural obstacle to the extension of the irrigation canals over tens of kilometers. By regulating the level of water derived from natural watercourses to adapt it to the needs of crops, and by developing techniques aimed at limiting soil salinization (leaching of fields, practice of fallow), it was possible to obtain very high cereal yields.
- Khorassan is a region located in northeastern Iran. The name comes from the Persian and means « where does the sun come from ». It was given to the eastern part of the Sassanid Empire. Khorassan is also considered the medieval name of Afghanistan by Afghans. Indeed, this territory included present-day Afghanistan, as well as southern Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan.
- In the 10th century, the Persian medical scholar Mohammad Al-Razi describes the distillation of petroleum to obtain kerosene or « illuminating petroleum » in his Book of Secrets.
- Sanskrit is a language of India, among the oldest known Indo-European languages (older even than Latin and Greek). It is notably the language of Hindu religious texts and, as such, it continues to be used as a cultural language, like Latin in centuries past in the West.
- Peshlevi or Middle Persian is an Iranian language that was spoken during the Sassanid era. She descends from Old Persian. Middle Persian was usually written using the Pahlevi script. The language was also written using the Manichean script by the Manichaeans of Persia.
- Abu Muhammad al – Qasim ibn ’Ali al – Hariri (1054–1122), Arab man of letters, poet and philologist, was born near Basra, in present-day Iraq. He is known for his Oaths and his maqâmât (literally fashions, often translated as assemblies or sessions), a collection of 50 short stories combining social and moral commentary with the brilliant expressions of the Arabic language. If the genre of maqâma was created by Badi’al – Zaman al – Hamadhani (969–1008), it is the sessions of al – Hariri that best define it. Written in a rhyming prose style called saj ’and interwoven with exquisite verse, the stories are meant to be entertaining and educational. Each of the anecdotes takes place in a different city in the Muslim world during the time of al – Hariri. They tell of an encounter, usually at a gathering of townspeople, between two fictional characters: the narrator al – Harith ibn Hammam and the protagonist Abu Zayd al-Saruji. Over the centuries, the work has been copied and commented on many times, but only 13 copies still in existence today have illuminations illustrating scenes from the stories. The manuscript presented here, executed in 1237, was both copied and illustrated by Yahya ibn Mahmud al-Wasiti, often considered the first Arab artist. It contains 99 miniatures of exceptional quality. No other known copy contains so much. The miniatures, recognized for their striking depiction of Muslim life in the 13th century, are considered to be the earliest Arab paintings created by an artist whose identity is known. Al – Wasiti, founder of the Baghdad School of Illumination, was also a remarkable calligrapher, as evidenced by his fine Naskhi style. The almost immediate popularity of the maqâmât reached Arab Spain, where Rabbi Judah al-Harizi (1165-c. 1225) translated the sessions into Hebrew under the title Mahberoth Itiel and subsequently composed his own Tahkemoni, or Hebrew sessions. . The work was also translated into many modern languages.
- The Barmecids or Barmakids are members of a Persian nobility family originally from Balkh in Bactria (north of Afghanistan). This family of Buddhist religious (paramaka means in Sanskrit the superior of a Buddhist monastery) who became Zoroastrians and then converted to Islam provided many viziers to the Abbasid caliphs. The Barmakids had acquired a remarkable reputation as patrons and are regarded as the main instigators of the brilliant culture which then developed in Baghdad.
- The Christological thesis of Nestorius (born c. 381 – died 451), Patriarch of Constantinople (428-431), was declared a heretic and condemned by the Council of Ephesus. For Nestorius, two hypostases, one divine, the other human, coexist in Jesus Christ. From the Eastern Church, Nestorianism was one of the historically most influential forms of Christianity in the world throughout late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, to India, China and Mongolia.
- Syriac (a form of Aramaic, the language of Christ) is alongside Latin and Greek the third component of ancient Christianity, rooted in Hellenism but also descended from Near Eastern and Semitic antiquity. From the first centuries, in a movement symmetrical to that of the Greco-Latin Christian tradition towards the west, Syriac Christianity developed towards the east, as far as India and China. Syriac is still today the liturgical and classical language (a bit like Latin in Europe) of the Syriac Orthodox, Syriac Catholic, Assyrian, Chaldean and Maronite Churches in Lebanon, Syria, Iraq and South India. Where is. Finally, it is the branch of Christianity most in contact with Islam in which he continued to live.
- In South-West Asia, the Greek influence remained alive in several cities under Christian influence: Edessa (now Urfa in Turkey), at the time capital of the county of Edessa, one of the first Eastern Latin states, the closest to the Islamic world; Antioch (now Antakya in Turkey); Nisibe (now Nusaybin in Turkey); Al-Mada’in (ie “The Cities”), an Iraqi metropolis on the Tigris, between the royal cities of Ctesiphon and Seleucia on the Tigris and Gondichapour (now in Iran) whose ruins remain. To this must be added the cities of Latakia (in Syria) and Amed (today Diyarbakir in Turkey) where there were Jacobite centers (Christians of the East, but members of the Syriac Orthodox Church, not to be confused with the Nestorians).
- The Gondishapour Academy was located in present-day Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran, near the Karoun River. It offered the teaching of medicine, philosophy, theology and science. The faculty was well versed not only in Zoroastrian and Persian traditions, but also taught Greek and Indian languages. The Academy included a library, an observatory, and the oldest known teaching hospital. According to historians, the Cambridge of Iran was the most important medical center in the Old World (defined as the territory of Europe, the Mediterranean and the Near East) during the 6th and 7th centuries .
- Sogdian is a middle Iranian language spoken in the Middle Ages by the Sogdians, a trading people who resided in Sogdiana, the historic region encompassing Samarkand and Bukhara and covering more or less present-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and northern Afghanistan. Before the arrival of Arabic, Sogdian was the lingua franca of the Silk Road. Sogdian traders settled in China and Sogdian monks were among the first to spread Buddhism there. As early as the 6th century, Chinese rulers appealed to the Sogdian elite to resolve diplomatic, commercial, military and even cultural issues, prompting many Sogdians to migrate from Central Asia and China’s border regions to major Chinese political centers.
- The Book of Ingenious Machines contains a hundred machines or objects, most of them due to the Banou Moussa brothers or adapted by them: funnel, crankshaft, conical ball valves, float valve and other hydraulic regulation systems, mask gas and ventilation bellows for mines; dredge, variable jet fountains, hurricane lamp, auto-off light, auto-powered; automatic musical instruments including a programmable flute.
- Astronomical ephemeris: registers of the positions of stars at regular intervals.
- Ibn Al-Haytam. In 2007, during a conference at the Sorbonne, I explored the use, by the Flemish painter Jan Van Eyck (early 15th century), of a bifocal geometric perspective, wrongly qualified as « primitive », erroneous and intuitive, actually inspired by the work and binocular experiences of the Arab scholar Ibn Al-Haytam (Alhazen). The latter drew on the work of his predecessors Al-Kindi, Ibn Luca and Ibn Sahl. Alhazen was widely known in the West thanks to the translations of the Franciscans of the University of Oxford (Grosseteste, Bacon, etc.). See summary biography.
- 310-230 BC.: Life of the Greek astronomer Aristarchus of Samos;
- 190-120 BC.: life of the Greek astronomer Hipparchus of Nicaea;
- v. 100-160 : life of Roman astronomer Claudius Ptolemy;
- 700-748: life of Wasil ibn Ata, intellectual founder of Mutazilism;
- 750: beginning of the Abbasid dynasty;
- 751: Abbasid victory against the Chinese at the battle of Talas (Kyrgyzstan);
- 763: founding of Baghdad by Caliph Al-Mansur;
- 780: Timothy I, patriarch of the Nestorian Christian church in Baghdad;
- 780-850: life of the Arab mathematician al-Kwarizmi;
- 786 to 809: caliphate for 23 years of Haroun al-Rachîd, legendary hero of the Thousand and One Nights tales. Development of mutazilism;
- 801-873: life of the mutazilist and Platonic philosopher Al-Kindi;
- 805-880: life of Al-Farghani, treatise on the Astrolabe;
- 813-833: caliphate of Al-Ma’mûn (20 years);
- 829: creation of the first permanent astronomical observatory in Baghdad followed by that of Damascus;
- 832: creation of the public library and creation of the Maisons de la Sagesse;
- 833: shortly before his death, Al-Ma’mûn decrees the created Koran and has mutazilism adopted as the official doctrine of the Abbasids;
- 836: transfer from the capital to Samarra;
- 848: the mutazilites removed from the Baghdad court;
- 858-930: life of Al-Battani, known as Albatenius;
- 865-925: life of translator and doctor Sahl Rabban al-Tabari;
- 869-883: revolt of the Zanj (black slaves from Zanzibar);
- 892: return from the capital of the Abbasids to Baghdad;
- 965-1039: life of Ibn Al-Haytam, known as Alhazen;
- 973-1048: life of Al-Biruni;
- 1095: first crusade;
- 1258: Baghdad sacked by the Mongols;
- 1259: creation of the Maragheh Astronomical Observatory (Iran);
- 1304-1375: life of Ibn Al-Shâtir;
- 1422: creation of the Astronomical Observatory of Samarkand, capital of Sogdiana;
- 1543: Polish astronomer Nicolas Copernicus publishes his De Revolutionibus;
- 1917: British troops enter Baghdad;
- 2003: looting and destruction by systematic arson of libraries and museums during the Iraq war.
- Mutazilism, website of the Association for the Renaissance of Mutazilite Islam (ARIM);
- Antoine Le Bail, Who are the mutazilites, sometimes called the « rationalists » of Islam ?, website of the Institut du Monde Arabe (IMA), Paris;
- Richard C. Martin, Mark R. Woodward with Dwi S. Atmaja, Defenders of Reason in Islam, Mu’tazilism from Medieval School to Modern Symbol, Oneworld, Oxford, 1997;
- Nadim Michel Kalife, The Lights of the First Centuries of Islam, on financialafrik.com, 2019;
- Mahmoud Azab, A Vision of the Universality of Arab-Islamic Civilization, Oberta de Catalunya University, www.uoc.edu;
- Sabine Schmidke, The People of Monotheism and Justice: Mutazilism in Islam and Judaism, Institute for Advanced Study, 2017;
- Malek Chebel, Slavery in the Land of Islam, Fayard, Paris 2012;
- Jacques Cheminade, Sublime words and idiocy by Nasr Eddin Hodja;
- Jacques Cheminade, Proposals for an inter-religious dialogue;
- Hussein Askary: Baghdad 767-1258 A.D., Melting Pot for a Universal Renaissance, Executive Intelligence Review, 2013;
- Hussein Askary: The Beauty of the Islamic Renaissance, the Elephant Clock, S&P website;
- Dr Subhi Al-Azzawi, The House of Wisdom of the Abbasids in Baghdad or the beginnings of the University, pdf on the internet;
- Dimitri Gutas, Greek Thought, Arab Culture. The movement of Greco-Arabic translation in Baghdad and primitive Abbasid society (2nd-4th / 8th-10th centuries), Aubier, Paris 2005;
- Jim Al-Khalili, The House of Wisdom, How Arab Science Saved Ancient Knowledge and Gave Us the Renaissance, Pinguin, London 2010;
- Jonathan Lyons, The House of Wisdom, How the Arabs Transformed Western Civilization, Bloomsbury, London 2009;
- Pastor Georges Tartar, Islamo-Christian Dialogue under Caliph Al-Ma’mûn, Les épitres d’Al-Hashimi and d’Al-Kindî, Nouvelles Editions Latines, Paris, 1985; –Al-Kindî, On First Philosophy, State University of New York Press, Albany, 1974; –Marie Thérèse d´Alverny, The transmission of philosophical and scientific texts in the Middle Ages, Variorum, Aldershot 1994;
- Danielle Jacquart, Françoise Micheau, Arab medicine and the medieval West, Maisonneuve, Paris 1990;
- Juan Vernet Gines, What culture owes to the Arabs of Spain, Sindbad, Actes Sud, Paris, 2000;
- Karen Armstrong, Islam, A Short History, Phoenix, London, 2002;
- Muriel Mirak Weisbach, Andalusia, a gateway to the Renaissance;
- Régis Morelon, Eastern Arab Astronomy between the 8th and 11th Century, in History of Arab Sciences, edited by Roshdi Rashed, Vol. 1, Astronomy, Theoretical and Applied, Seuil, Paris, 1997;
- George Saliba, Planetary Theories in Arab Astronomy after the 11th Century, in History of Arab Sciences, edited by Roshdi Rashed, Vol. 1, Astronomy, Theoretical and Applied, Seuil, Paris, 1997;
- Roshi Rashed, Geometric Optics, in History of Arab Sciences, edited by Roshdi Rashed, Vol. 2, Mathematics and physics, Seuil, Paris, 1997; –Jean-Pierre Verdet, A History of Astronomy, Seuil, Paris, 1990;
- J. P. Maratray, Arab Astronomy, on the Astrosurf.com website;
- Jean-Pierre Luminet, Ulugh Beg – The Astronomer of Samarkand, 2018;
- Kitty Ferguson, Pythagoras, His Lives and the Legacy of a Rational Universe, Walker publishing Company, New York, 2008;
- Sir Thomas Heath, Aristarchus of Samos, The Ancient Copernicus, Dover, New York, 1981:
- A. T. Papadopoulo, Islam and Muslim Art, The Art of Great Civilizations, Mazenod, Paris, 1976;
- Olag Grabar, Art and Culture in the Islamic World, Arts & Civilizations of Islam, Köneman, Cologne, 2000;
- Christiane Gruber, Images of Muhammad in Islam, Afkar / Ideas, Spring 2015;
- Hans Belting, Florence & Baghdad, Renaissance art and Arab science, Harvard University Press, 2011;
- Dominique Raynaud, Ibn al-Haytham on binocular vision: a precursor of physiological optics, Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2003, 13, pp. 79-99;
- Jonathan M. Bloom, Paper Before Print: The History and Impact of Paper in the Islamic World, Yale University Press, 2001;
- Karel Vereycken, Jan Van Eyck, a Flemish painter in Arabic optics, S&P website;
Il est de bon ton aujourd’hui de présenter les enjeux maritimes dans le cadre d’une l’idéologie géopolitique britannique moribonde dressant les pays et les peuples les uns contre les autres.
Cependant, comme le démontre cette brève histoire de la Route de la soie maritime, tirée pour l’essentiel d’un document de l’organisation internationale du tourisme, l’océan a été avant tout un lieu fantastique de rencontres fertiles, de brassages culturels et de coopérations mutuellement bénéfiques.
Les anciens Chinois ont inventé beaucoup de choses que nous utilisons de nos jours, notamment le papier, les allumettes, les brouettes, la poudre à canon, la noria (élévateur), les écluses à sas, le cadran solaire, l’astronomie, la porcelaine, la peinture laque, la roue de potier, les feux d’artifice, la monnaie de papier, la boussole, le gouvernail d’étambot, le tangram, le sismographe, les dominos, la corde à sauter, les cerfs-volants, la cérémonie du thé, le parapluie pliable, l’encre, la calligraphie, le harnais pour animaux, les jeux de cartes, l’impression, le boulier, le papier peint, l’arbalète, la crème glacée, et surtout la soie dont nous aller parler ici.
Origine de la soie
Avant de parler des « routes » de la soie, deux mots sur les origines de la sériciculture, c’est-à-dire l’élevage de vers à soie.
Comme le confirment des découvertes archéologiques récentes, la production de la soie représente un savoir-faire ancestral. La présence du mûrier pour l’élevage du ver à soie a été constatée en Chine autour du fleuve jaune chez la culture de Yangshao lors du néolithique moyen chinois de 4500 à 3000 av. JC.
En général, on préfère retenir la légende qui affirme que la soie a été découverte vers 2500 ans avant J.C., par la princesse chinoise Si Ling-chi, lorsqu’un cocon tomba accidentellement dans son bol de thé. En essayant de le retirer, elle s’aperçut que le cocon ramolli par l’eau chaude déployait un fil délicat, doux et solide pouvant être dévidé et assemblé. Ainsi serait née l’idée de confectionner des étoffes. La princesse décida alors de planter de nombreux mûriers blancs dans son jardin pour élever des vers à soie.
Les vers à soie (ou bombyx) et les mûriers furent divinement bien soignés par la princesse (les vers à soie se nourrissent uniquement de feuilles de mûriers blancs).
La production de soie est un processus long qui nécessite une grande surveillance. Les papillons de soie pondent environs 500 œufs au cours de leurs vies, qui est de 4 à 6 jours. Après éclosion des œufs, les bébés vers se nourrissent de feuilles de mûrier dans un environnement contrôlé. Ils ont un féroce appétit et leur poids peut considérablement augmenter. Après avoir emmagasiné suffisamment d’énergie, les vers sécrètent par leurs glandes de la soie une gelée blanche et s’en servent pour réaliser un cocon autour d’eux.
Après huit ou neuf jours, les vers sont tués et les cocons sont plongés dans de l’eau bouillante afin d’assouplir les filaments de protection qui sont enroulés sur une bobine. Ces filaments peuvent être de 600 à 900 mètres de long. Plusieurs filaments sont assemblés pour former un fil. Les fils de soie sont alors tissé pour former une toile ou utilisée pour de la broderie fine ou encore le brocart, riche tissu de soie rehaussé de dessins brochés en fils d’or et d’argent.
Le début du commerce de la soie
Sous la menace de la peine capitale, la sériciculture resta un secret bien gardé et la Chine conservera durant des millénaires son monopole sur la fabrication.
Ce n’est que sous la dynastie des Zhou (1112 av. JC.), qu’une Route de la soie maritime va desservir à partir de la Chine le Japon et la Corée car le gouvernement décide d’y envoyer, depuis le port situé dans la baie de Bohai (de la Péninsule de Shandong), des Chinois chargés de former les habitants à la sériciculture et l’agriculture. C’est ainsi que les techniques d’élevage du vers à soie, du bobinage et du tissage de la soie ont, peu à peu, été introduites en Corée via la mer Jaune.
Lorsque l’empereur Qin Shi Huang unifie la Chine (221 av. JC.), de nombreuses personnes des États de Qi, Yan et Zhao s’enfuient vers la Corée en emportant, avec eux, des vers à soie et leur technique d’élevage. Ceci va accélérer le développement de la filature de la soie dans ce pays.
Pour les relations internationales de la Chine, la Corée a joué un rôle central en particulier comme un pont intellectuel entre la Chine et le Japon. Son commerce avec la Chine a également permis la divulgation du bouddhisme et des méthodes de fabrication de la porcelaine.
Bien qu’initialement réservé à la Cour impériale, la soie s’est répandu à travers toute la culture asiatique, aussi bien géographiquement que socialement. La soie devient rapidement le tissu de luxe par excellence que la terre entière désire.
A l’époque des dynasties Han (206 av. JC à 220), un canevas dense de routes commerciales fait exploser les échanges culturels et commerciaux à travers l’Asie centrale et impacte profondément la dynamique civilisationnelle. La dynastie des Han continue la construction de la grande muraille et crée notamment la commanderie de Dunhuang (Gansu), poste clé de la Route de la soie. Son commerce s’étend, plus de deux siècles av. JC, jusqu’à la Grèce puis Rome où la soie est réservée aux élites.
Au IIIe siècle, l’Inde, le Japon et la Perse (Iran) réussissent à percer le secret de la fabrication de la soie et deviennent d’importants producteurs.
La soie arrive en Europe
L’élevage du ver à soie, dit-on, aurait débuté en Europe au VIe siècle grâce à deux moines du Mont Athos, envoyés par l’empereur byzantin Justinien. Ils ont rapporté de Chine ou d’Inde, des œufs de vers à soie cachés dans leur bâton de pèlerin en bambou creux. Une autre version prétend que ce serait l’empereur Han Wu (IIe siècle) qui envoya des ambassadeurs, munis de présents tel que la soie, vers l’occident. L’élevage se répandit d’abord dans l’empire byzantin qui en conserva le secret.
Au VIIe siècle, la sériciculture se répand en Afrique et en Sicile où, sous l’impulsion de Roger Ier de Sicile (v. 1034-1101) et de son fils Roger II (1093-1154), le ver à soie et le mûrier furent introduits dans l’ancien Péloponnèse.
Au Xe siècle, l’Andalousie devient l’épicentre de la fabrication de la soie avec Grenade, Tolède et Séville. Lors de la conquête arabe, la sériciculture passa en Espagne, en Italie (Venise, Florence et Milan) et en France.
Les plus anciennes traces françaises d’une activité séricicole remontent au XIIIe siècle, notamment dans le Gard (1234) et à Paris (1290).
Au XVe siècle, face à l’importation ruineuse de la soie (brute ou manufacturée) italiennes, Louis XI essaye de créer des manufactures de soieries, d’abord à Tours sur la Loire, en ensuite à Lyon, une ville au carrefour des routes nord-sud où les émigrants italiens pratiquaient déjà le commerce de soieries.
Au XIXe siècle, la production de la soie a été industrialisée au Japon mais au XXe siècle, la Chine reprend sa place comme le plus grand producteur mondial. Aujourd’hui, l’Inde, le Japon, la République de Corée, la Thaïlande, le Vietnam, l’Ouzbékistan et le Brésil ont des grosses capacités de production.
Autant que la soie elle-même, le transport de la soie par voie maritime remonte à des âges immémoriaux.
Pour les Chinois, il existe deux principales routes : la Route de la Soie de la Mer orientale de Chine (vers la Corée et le Japon) et la Route de la Soie de la Mer méridionale de Chine (via le détroit de Malacca vers l’Inde, le golfe Persique, l’Afrique et l’Europe). Royaume du Fou-Nan
Au Vietnam, le musée de Hanoï possède une pièce de monnaie datant de l’an 152 arborant l’effigie de l’empereur romain Antonin le Pieux. Cette pièce a été découverte dans les vestiges d’Oc Eo, une ville vietnamienne située au sud du delta du Mékong, qu’on pense avoir été le port principal du Royaume du Fou-nan (Ier au IXe siècle).
Ce royaume, qui couvrait le territoire du Cambodge actuel et de la région administrative vietnamienne du delta du Mékong, a prospéré du Ier au IXe siècle. Or, la première mention du royaume du Fou-nan, apparait dans le compte rendu d’une mission chinoise qui s’y est rendue au IIIe siècle.
Les Founamiens furent à la gloire de leur puissance lorsque l’hindouisme et le bouddhisme furent introduits en Asie du Sud-Est.
Ensuite, à partir de l’Egypte, des marchands grecs ont atteint la baie de Bengale. Des quantités considérables de poivre atteignent alors Ostia, le port d’entrée de Rome. Toutes les preuves historiques démontrent que le commerce est-ouest fleurissait dès notre premier millénaire.
Perses et Arabes en Asie
Du coté occidental, à l’entrée de la baie de Koweït, à 20 kilomètres au large de la ville de Koweït City, non loin du débouché de l’estuaire commun du Tigre et de l’Euphrate dans le golfe Persique, l’île de Failaka a été l’un des lieux de rendez-vous où la Grèce, Rome et la Chine échangeaient leurs marchandises.
Sous la dynastie des Sassanides (226-651), les Perses ont développé leurs routes commerciales jusqu’en Asie du Sud-est en passant par l’Inde et le Sri Lanka. Cette infrastructure commerciale fut reprise ensuite par les Arabes lorsqu’en 762 ils déplacèrent la capitale Omeyyade de Damas à Bagdad.
Ainsi, la ville de Quilon (Kollam), la capitale du Kerala en Inde, voit cohabiter dès le IXe siècle des colonies de marchands arabes, chrétiens, juifs et chinois.
Du coté occidental, les navigateurs perses et ensuite arabes ont joué un rôle central dans la naissance de la route de la soie maritime. A la suite des routes sassanides, les Arabes poussaient leurs dhows, c’est-à-dire les boutres ou voiliers arabes traditionnels, de la mer Rouge aux côtes chinoises et jusqu’aux confins de la Malaisie et de l’Indonésie.
Ces marins apportèrent avec eux une nouvelle religion, l’islam qui s’étendra en Asie du Sud-Est. Si initialement le pèlerinage traditionnel (le hajj) vers la Mecque ne fut qu’une aspiration pour de nombreux musulmans, il leur deviendra de plus en plus possible de l’effectuer.
Lors de la mousson, la saison où les vents sont favorables à la navigation vers l’Inde dans l’océan Indien, les missions commerciales semestrielles se transformaient en véritables foires internationales offrant du même coup une occasion pour transporter par la mer une grande quantité de marchandises dans des conditions (abstraction faite des pirates et de l’imprévisibilité du temps) relativement moins exposées aux dangers du transport par voie terrestre.
Chine : la Route de la soie maritime
sous les dynasties Sui, Tang et Song
C’est sous la dynastie Sui (581-618), qu’en partance de Quanzhou, ville côtière dans la province du Fujian, dans le sud-est de la Chine, la Route de la soie maritime trace ses premiers itinéraires commerciaux.
Riche de sa panoplie d’endroits pittoresques et de sites historiques, Quanzhou a été proclamée « point de départ de la Route de la Soie maritime » par l’UNESCO.
C’est à cette époque que les premières méthodes d’imprimerie font leur apparition en Chine. Il s’agit de blocs de bois permettant d’imprimer sur du textile. En 593, l’Empereur Sui, Wen-ti, ordonna l’impression des images et des écrits bouddhiques. Un des plus anciens textes imprimés est un écrit bouddhiste datant de 868 retrouvé dans une grotte près de Dunhuang, une ville étape de la Route de la soie.
Sous la dynastie Tang (618-907), l’expansion militaire du Royaume apporta de la sécurité, du commerce et des idées nouvelles. Le fait que la stabilité de la Chine des Tang coïncide avec celle de la Perse des Sassanides, permet alors aux routes de la soie terrestres et maritimes de prospérer. La grande transformation de la route de la soie maritime aura lieu à partir du VIIe siècle lorsque la Chine s’ouvre de plus en plus aux échanges internationaux.
Le premier ambassadeur arabe y prend ses fonctions en 651.
La Dynastie Tang choisit comme capitale la ville de Chang’an (appelé aujourd’hui Xi’an). Elle adopte une attitude ouverte vis-à-vis des différentes croyances. Des temples bouddhistes, taoïstes et confucéens y coexistent pacifiquement avec des mosquées, des synagogues et des églises nestoriennes chrétiennes.
Chang’an étant le terminus de la Route de la Soie, le marché ouest de Chang’an devient le centre du commerce mondial. Selon le registre de l’Autorité Six des Tang, plus de 300 nations et régions avaient des relations commerciales avec Chang’an.
Presque 10 000 familles de pays étrangers de l’ouest vivaient dans la ville, spécialement dans la zone autour du marché ouest. Il y avait beaucoup d’auberges étrangères dont le personnel était des servantes étrangères choisies pour leur beauté. Le poète le plus célèbre dans l’histoire Chinoise, Li Bai, flânait souvent parmi elles. La nourriture étrangère, les costumes, la musique étaient la mode de Chang’an.
Après la chute de la dynastie Tang, les Cinq dynasties et la période des dix royaumes (907-960), l’arrivée de la dynastie Song (960-1279) va inaugurer une nouvelle période faste caractérisée par une centralisation accrue et un renouveau économique et culturel. La route maritime de la soie retrouve alors de son allant. En 1168 une synagogue est érigée à Kaifeng, capitale de la dynastie Song du Sud, pour servir aux marchands de la route de la soie.
Durant la même période, de pair avec l’expansion de l’islam, des comptoirs commerciaux vont apparaître tout autour de l’océan Indien et dans le reste de l’Asie du Sud-est.
La Chine incite alors ses marchands à saisir les occasions qu’offre le trafic maritime, notamment la vente du camphre, une plante médicinale très recherchée. Un véritable réseau commercial se développe alors dans les Indes orientales sous les auspices du Royaume de Sriwijaya, une cité-Etat du sud de Sumatra en Indonésie (voir ci-dessous) qui fera pendant près de six siècles la jonction entre d’un coté les marchands chinois et de l’autre les Indiens et les Malais. Une route commerciale émerge alors réellement méritant le nom de « route de la soie » maritime.
Des quantités de plus en plus importantes d’épices passent alors par l’Inde, la mer Rouge et Alexandrie en Egypte avant d’atteindre les marchands de Gênes, Venise et les autres ports occidentaux. De là, ils repartiront vers les marchés du nord de l’Europe de Lübeck (Allemagne), Riga (Lituanie) ou encore Tallinn (Estonie), qui deviendront, à partir du XIIe siècle, des villes importantes de la Ligue hanséatique.
En Chine, sous le règne de l’empereur Song, Renzong (1022-1063), beaucoup d’argent et d’énergie furent dépensés pour réunir les savoirs et les savoir-faire. L’économie fut la première à en bénéficier.
En s’appuyant sur le savoir-faire des marins arabes et indiens, les navires chinois deviennent alors les plus avancés du monde.
Les Chinois, qui avaient inventé la boussole (au moins depuis l’an 1119), dépassèrent rapidement leurs concurrents au niveau de la cartographie et l’art de naviguer alors que la jonque chinoise devient le vraquier par excellence.
Dans son traité géographique, Zhou Qufei, en 1178, rapporte :
« Les gros navires qui croisent la Mer du sud sont comme des maisons. Lorsqu’ils déplient leurs voiles, on dirait d’énormes nuages. Leur gouvernail est long de plusieurs dizaines de pieds. Un seul navire peut abriter plusieurs centaines d’hommes. A bord, il y a de quoi manger pour un an ».
Des fouilles archéologiques confirment cette réalité comme par exemple l’épave d’une jonque datant du XIVe siècle, retrouvée aux larges de la Corée, dans laquelle on a découvert plus de 10 000 pièces de céramique.
Lors de cette période, le commerce côtier passe graduellement des mains des marchands arabes aux mains des marchands chinois. Le commerce s’étend, notamment grâce à l’inclusion de la Corée ainsi que l’intégration du Japon, de la côte indienne de Malabar, du golfe Persique et de la mer Rouge dans les réseaux commerciaux existants.
La Chine exporte du thé, de la soie, du coton, de la porcelaine, des laques, du cuivre, des colorants, des livres et du papier. En retour, elle importe des produits de luxe et des matières premières, notamment des bois rares, des métaux précieux, des pierres précieuses et semi-précieuses, des épices et de l’ivoire.
Des pièces de monnaie en cuivre de la période Song ont été découvertes au Sri Lanka, et la présence de la porcelaine de cette époque a été constatée en Afrique de l’Est, en Egypte, en Turquie, dans certains Etats du Golfe et en Iran, tout comme en Inde et en Asie du Sud-est.
L’importance de la Corée et du Royaume de Silla
Pendant le premier millénaire, la culture et la philosophie ont fleuri dans la péninsule Coréenne. Un réseau marchand bien organisé et bien protégé avec la Chine et le Japon y opérait.
Sur l’île japonaise d’Okino-shima on trouve de nombreuses traces historiques témoignant des échanges intenses entre l’archipel japonais, la Corée et le continent asiatique.
Des fouilles effectuées dans des tombeaux anciens à Gyeongju, aujourd’hui une ville sud-coréenne de 264 000 habitants et capitale de l’ancien Royaume de Silla (de 57 av. JC à 935) qui contrôlait la plus grande partie de la péninsule du VIIe au IXe siècle, démontrent l’intensité des échanges de ce royaume avec le reste du monde, via la route de la soie.
L’Indonésie, une grande puissance maritime au coeur de la Route de la soie maritime
En Indonésie, en Malaisie et dans le sud de la Thaïlande, le Royaume de Sriwijaya (VIIe au XIIIe) a joué le rôle majeur de comptoir maritime où furent entreposées des marchandises de forte valeur de la région et au-delà en vue de leur commercialisation ultérieure par voie maritime. Sriwijaya contrôlait notamment le détroit de Malacca, le passage maritime incontournable entre l’Inde et la Chine.
A l’apogée de sa puissance au XIe siècle, le réseau des ports et des comptoirs sous domination Sriwijaya échangèrent une vaste palette de produits et de productions : du riz, du coton, de l’indigo et de l’argent de Java, de l’aloès (une plante succulente d’origine africaine), des résines végétales, du camphre, de l’ivoire et des cornes de rhinocéros, de l’étain et de l’or de Sumatra, du rotin, des bois rouges et d’autres bois rares, des pierres précieuses de Bornéo, des oiseaux rares et des animaux exotiques, du fer, du santal et des épices d’Indonésie orientale, d’Inde et d’Asie du Sud-est, et enfin, de Chine, des porcelaines, des laques, du brocart, des tissues et de la soie.
Avec comme capitale la ville de Palembang (à ce jour 1,7 million d’habitants) sur la rivière Musi dans ce qui est aujourd’hui la province méridionale de Sumatra, ce royaume d’inspiration hindouiste et bouddhiste, qui a prospéré du VIIIe au XIIIe siècle, a été le premier royaume indonésien d’importance et la première puissance maritime indonésienne.
Dès le VIIe siècle, il règne sur une grande partie de Sumatra, la partie occidentale de l’île de Java et une partie importante de la péninsule malaise. Avec une étendue au Nord jusqu’en Thaïlande, où des vestiges archéologiques de cités Sriwijaya existent encore.
Le musée de Palembang — une ville où communautés chinoises, indiennes, arabes et yéménites, chacun avec ses institutions particulières, co-prospèrent depuis plusieurs générations — raconte à merveille comment la Route de la soie maritime a engendré un enrichissement culturel mutuel exemplaire.
Madagascar, le sanskrit et la Route de la cannelle
Aujourd’hui, Madagascar est habitée par des noirs et des asiatiques. Des tests ADN ont confirmé ce que l’on savait depuis longtemps : de nombreux habitants de l’île descendent de marins malais et indonésiens qui ont mis pied sur l’ile vers l’année 830 lorsque l’Empire Sriwijaya étend son influence maritime vers l’Afrique.
Autre élément de preuve de cette présence, le fait que la langue parlée sur l’île emprunte des mots sanskrits et indonésiens.
Sans surprise, la carte de l’expansion des langues austronésiennes est quasiment superposable à celle de la Route de la cannelle (ci-dessus).
Pour démontrer la faisabilité de ces voyages maritimes, une équipe de chercheurs a navigué en 2003 d’Indonésie jusqu’au Ghana en passant par Madagascar à bord du Borobudur, la reconstruction d’un des voiliers figurant dans plusieurs des 1300 bas-reliefs décorant le temple bouddhiste de Borobudur sur l’île de Java en Indonésie, datant du VIIIe siècle.
Beaucoup pensent que ce navire est une représentation de ceux que les marchands indonésiens utilisaient autrefois pour traverser l’océan jusqu’en Afrique. Les navigateurs indonésiens utilisaient habituellement des bateaux relativement petits. Pour en assurer l’équilibre, ils les équipaient de balanciers, aussi bien doubles (ngalawa) que simples.
Leurs bateaux, dont la coque était taillée dans un seul tronc d’arbre, étaient appelés sanggara. Dans leurs traversées vers l’est, les marchands de l’archipel indonésien pouvaient jadis se rendre jusqu’à Hawaii et la Nouvelle-Zélande, à une distance de plus de 7 000 km.
En tout cas, le bateau des chercheurs, équipé d’un mât de 18 mètres de haut, a réussi à parcourir la route Jakarta – Maldives – cap de Bonne-Espérance – Ghana, une distance de 27 750 kilomètres, soit plus de la moitié de la circonférence de la Terre !
L’expédition visait à refaire une route bien précise : celle de la cannelle, qui a conduit les marchands indonésiens jusqu’en Afrique pour vendre des épices, dont la cannelle, une denrée très recherchée à l’époque. Elle était déjà très prisée dans les régions du bassin méditerranéen bien avant l’ère chrétienne.
Sur les murs du temple égyptien de Deir el-Bahari (Louksor), une peinture représente une expédition navale importante dont il est dit qu’elle aurait été ordonnée par la reine Hatshepsout, qui régna de 1503 à 1482 avant JC.
Autour de cette peinture des hiéroglyphes expliquent que ces navires transportaient diverses espèces de plantes et d’essences odorantes destinées au culte. Une de ces denrées est la cannelle. Riche en arôme, elle était une composante importante des cérémonies rituelles dans les royaumes d’Egypte.
Or, la cannelle poussait à l’origine en Asie centrale, dans l’est de l’Himalaya et dans le nord du Vietnam. Les Chinois méridionaux l’ont transplantée de ces régions dans leur propre pays et l’ont cultivée sous le nom de gui zhi.
De la Chine, le gui zhi s’est répandu dans tout l’archipel indonésien, trouvant là une terre d’accueil très fertile, en particulier dans les îles Moluques. De fait, le commerce international de la cannelle était alors un monopole tenu par les marchands indonésiens. La cannelle d’Indonésie était appréciée pour son excellente qualité et son prix très compétitif.
Les Indonésiens parcouraient donc à la voile de grandes distances, jusqu’à plus de 8 000 km, traversant l’océan Indien jusqu’à Madagascar et le nord-est de l’Afrique. De Madagascar, les produits étaient transportés à Rhapta, dans une région côtière qui prit par la suite le nom de Somalie. Au-delà, les marchands arabes les expédiaient vers le nord jusqu’à la mer Rouge.
Le détroit de Malacca
Pour la Chine, le détroit de Malacca a toujours représenté un intérêt stratégique majeur. À l’époque où le grand amiral chinois Zheng He mène la première de ses expéditions vers l’Inde, le Proche-Orient et l’Afrique de l’Est entre 1405 et 1433, un pirate chinois du nom de Chen Zuyi a pris le contrôle de Palembang. Zheng He défait la flotte de Chen et capture les survivants. Du coup, le détroit est redevenu une route maritime sûre.
Selon la tradition, un prince de Sriwijaya, Parameswara, se réfugie sur l’île de Temasek (l’actuelle Singapour) mais s’établit finalement sur la côte ouest de la péninsule malaise vers 1400 et fonde la ville de Malacca, qui deviendra le plus grand port d’Asie du Sud-est, à la fois successeur de Sriwijaya et précurseur de Singapour.
Le royaume de Majapahit noua des relations avec celui le Royaume de Champa (192-1145 ; 1147-1190 ; 1220-1832) (Sud Vietnam), du Cambodge, du Siam (la Thaïlande) et du Myanmar méridional.
Le royaume de Majapahit envoyait également des missions en Chine. Alors que ses dirigeants étendirent leur pouvoir sur d’autres îles et mirent à sac les royaumes voisins, il chercha avant tout à augmenter sa part et son contrôle sur le commerce des marchandises transitant par l’archipel.
L’île de Singapour et la partie la plus au sud de la péninsule malaise fut un carrefour clé de l’ancienne Route de la soie maritime. Des fouilles archéologiques entrepris dans l’estuaire du Kallang et le long du fleuve Singapour, ont permis de découvrir des milliers d’éclats de verre, des perles naturelles ou en or, des céramiques et des pièces de monnaie chinoises de la période des Song du nord (960-1127).
La montée de l’Empire mongol au milieu du XIIIe siècle va provoquer l’accroissement du commerce par la mer et contribuer à la vitalité de la Route de la soie maritime. Marco Polo, après un voyage terrestre qui dura 17 ans, vers la Chine reviendra par bateau. Après avoir été témoin d’un naufrage, il passa de la Chine à Sumatra en Indonésie avant de remettre pied à terre à Ormuz en Perse (Iran).
Sous les dynasties Yuan et Ming
Sous la dynastie des Song, on exporte, vers le Japon, une quantité importante d’articles de soie. Sous celle des Yuan (1271-1368), le gouvernement instaure le Shi Bo Si, bureau en charge des échanges commerciaux, dans de nombreux ports comme, notamment, Ningbo, Canton, Shanghai, Ganpu, Wenzhou et Hangzhou, permettant, ainsi, l’exportation des soieries vers le Japon.
Durant les dynasties des Tang, Song et Yuan, et au début de celle des Ming, on assiste, dans chaque port, à la création d’un département océanique de négoce pour gérer l’ensemble des échanges commerciales extérieures maritimes.
Le commerce avec les sud de l’Inde et du golfe Persique fleurit. Le commerce avec l’Afrique de l’Est se développe également en fonction de la mousson et apporte de l’ivoire, de l’or et des esclaves. En Inde, des guildes commencent à contrôler le commerce chinois sur la côte du Malabar et au Sri Lanka. Les relations commerciales se formalisent tout en restant soumises à une forte concurrence. Cochin et Kozhikode (Calicut), deux grandes villes de l’Etat indien du Kerala, rivalisent alors pour dominer ce commerce.
Les explorations maritimes de l’amiral Zheng He
Les explorations maritimes chinoises connaitront leur apogée au début du XVe siècle sous la dynastie Ming (1368-1644) qui, pour diriger sept expéditions diplomatiques navales, choisira un eunuque musulman de la cour, l’amiral Zheng He.
Financées par l’Empereur Ming Yongle, ces missions pacifiques en Asie du Sud-est, en Afrique de l’Est, dans l’Océan indien, dans le golfe Persique et en Mer Rouge, viseront avant tout à démontrer le prestige et la grandeur de la Chine et de son Empereur. Il s’agit également de reconnaître une trentaine d’Etats et de nouer des relations politiques et commerciales avec eux.
En 1409, avant une des expéditions, l’amiral chinois Zheng He demanda à des artisans de fabriquer une stèle en pierre taillée à Nanjing, actuelle capitale de la province du Jiangsu (est de la Chine). La stèle voyagea avec la flottille et fut laissée au Sri Lanka comme cadeau à un temple bouddhiste local. Des prières aux divinités en trois langues -chinois, persan et tamoul- furent gravés sur la stèle. Elle fut retrouvé en 1911 dans la ville de Galle, dans le sud-ouest du Sri Lanka et une réplique se trouve aujourd’hui en Chine.
L’armada de Zheng était composée de vraquiers armés, le plus modeste étant plus grand que les caravelles de Christophe Colomb. Les plus vastes atteignaient une longueur de 100 et une largeur de 50 mètres. D’après les chroniques Ming de l’époque, une expédition pouvait comprendre 62 navires avec 500 personnes à bord chacun. Certains d’entre eux transportaient la cavalerie militaire et d’autres des réservoirs d’eau potable. La construction navale chinoise était en avance. La technique de cloisons hermétiques, imitant la structure interne du bambou, offrait une sécurité incomparable. Elle fut la norme pour la flotte chinoise avant d’être copiée par les Européens 250 ans plus tard. A cela s’ajoutait l’emploi de la boussole et celui de cartes célestes peintes sur soie.
La synergie qui a pu exister entre marins arabes, indiens et chinois, tous des hommes de mer qui fraternisent face à l’adversité de l’océan, a de quoi nous impressionner. Par exemple, certains historiens estiment qu’il n’est pas exclu que le nom « Sindbad le marin », qui apparaît dans la fable d’origine perse qui conte les aventures d’un marin du temps de la dynastie des Abbassides (VIIIe siècle) et fut intégrée dans les Contes des Mille et Une Nuits, dérive du mot Sanbao, le surnom honorifique donné par l’Empereur chinois à l’amiral Zheng He, signifiant littéralement « Les trois joyaux », c’est-à-dire les trois vertus capitales indissociables communes aux principales philosophies que sont l’Eveil (qui permet d’apprendre), l’Altruisme (qui permet la compréhension de l’autre) et l’Equité (qui invite à partager avec lui).
Aussi bien en Chine (à Hong-Kong, à Macao, à Fuzhou, à Tianjin et à Nanjing) qu’à Singapour, en Malaisie et en Indonésie, des musées maritimes mettent les expéditions de l’amiral Zheng en valeur.
Soulignons cependant qu’au moins douze autres amiraux ont effectué des expéditions similaires en Asie du Sud-est et dans l’océan Indien. En 1403, l’amiral Ma Pi a conduit une expédition jusqu’en Indonésie et en Inde. Wu Bin, Zhang Koqing et Hou Xian en ont fait d’autres. Après que la foudre avait provoqué un incendie de la Cité interdite, une dispute éclata entre la classe des eunuques, partisans des expéditions, et des mandarins lettrés, qui obtiendront l’arrêt d’expéditions jugées trop onéreuses. Le dernier voyage a eu lieu entre 1430 et 1433, c’est-à-dire 64 ans avant que l’explorateur portugais Vasco da Gama ne se rende sur les mêmes lieux en 1497.
Le Japon, de son coté, de façon similaire, a restreint ses contacts avec le monde extérieure lors de la période Tokugawa (1600-1868) bien que son commerce avec la Chine ne fut jamais suspendu. Ce n’est qu’après la restauration Meiji en 1868 qu’un Japon ouvert au monde a ré-émergé.
Dans un repli sur eux-mêmes, le commerce aussi bien la Chine que du Japon tomba aux mains de comptoirs maritimes comme Malacca en Malaisie ou Hi An au Vietnam, deux villes aujourd’hui reconnues par l’Unesco comme patrimoine de l’humanité. H ?i An était un port étape majeur sur la route maritime reliant l’Europe et le Japon en passant par l’Inde et la Chine. Dans les épaves de navires retrouvées à Hi An, les chercheurs ont retrouvé des céramiques qui attendaient leur départ pour le Sinaï en Egypte.
Histoire des ports chinois
Au fil des années, on assiste à une évolution en ce qui concerne les principaux ports de la Route maritime de la Soie. A partir des années 330, Canton et Hepu étaient les deux ports les plus importants.
Cependant, Quanzhou se substitue à Canton, de la fin de la dynastie des Song à celle des Yuan.
A cette époque, Quanzhou, dans la province du Fujian et Alexandrie en Egypte étaient considérés comme les plus vastes ports du monde. A cause de la politique de fermeture sur le monde extérieur imposée à partir de 1435 et de l’influence des guerres, Quanzhou a été, progressivement, remplacé par les ports de Yuegang, Zhangzhou et Fujian.
Dès le début du IVe siècle, Canton est un important port de la Route maritime de la Soie. Peu à peu, il devient le plus vaste mais, également, le port d’Orient le plus renommé à travers le monde sous les dynasties des Tang et des Song. Durant cette période, la route maritime reliant Canton au golfe persique en passant par la Mer de Chine méridionale et l’océan Indien est la plus longue du monde.
Bien que plus tard supplanté par Quanzhou sous la dynastie des Yuan, le port de Canton demeurera le second plus grand port commercial de Chine. Par comparaison avec les autres, on le considère comme étant un port durablement prospère au cours des 2000 ans d’histoire de la Route maritime de la Soie.
Le système tributaire
La dernière dynastie impériale chinoise, celle des Qing, a régné de 1644 à 1912. Depuis l’arrivée de la dynastie Ming, les échanges commerciaux maritimes avec la Chine s’organisaient de deux façons :
- le « système tributaire » chinois qui passait par la ville de Guangdong ;
- le système dit « de Canton » (1757–1842).
Né sous les Ming en 1368, et le « système tributaire » atteindra son apogée sous les Qing. Il prend alors la forme raffinée d’une hiérarchie inclusive mutuellement bénéfique. Les Etats qui y adhèrent faisaient preuve de respect et de reconnaissance en présentant régulièrement à l’Empereur un tribut composé de produits locaux et en exécutant certaines cérémonies rituelles, notamment le « kowtow » (trois génuflexions et neuf prosternations). Ils demandaient également l’investiture de leurs dirigeants par l’Empereur et adoptaient le calendrier chinois. Outre la Chine, on y retrouvait le Japon, la Corée, le Vietnam, la Thaïlande, l’Indonésie, les îles Ryükyü, le Laos, le Myanmar et la Malaisie.
Paradoxalement tout en occupant un statut culturel central, le système tributaire offrait à ses vassaux un statut d’entité souveraine et leur permettait d’exercer leur autorité sur une aire géographique donnée. L’Empereur gagnait leur soumission en se préoccupant vertueusement de leur bien-être et en promouvant une doctrine de non-intervention et de non-exploitation. En effet, d’après les historiens, en termes financiers, la Chine ne s’est jamais enrichie d’une façon directe avec le système tributaire. En général, tous les frais de voyage et de séjour des missions tributaires étaient couverts par le gouvernement chinois. En plus des coûts de fonctionnement du système, les cadeaux offerts par l’Empereur avaient en général beaucoup plus de valeur que les tributs qu’il recevait. Chaque mission tributaire avait en effet le droit d’être accompagnée par un grand nombre de commerçants et une fois le tribut présenté à l’Empereur, le commerce pouvait commencer.
Il est à noter que, lorsqu’un pays perdait son statut d’Etat tributaire suite à un désaccord, ce dernier essayait à tout prix et parfois de façon violente d’être à nouveau autorisé à payer le tribut.
Le système de Canton
Le deuxième système concernait les puissances étrangères, principalement européennes, désireuses de faire du commerce avec la Chine. Il passait par le port de Guangzhou (à l’époque appelé Canton), le seul port accessibles aux Occidentaux.
Ainsi, les marchands, notamment ceux de la Compagnie britanniques des Indes orientales, pouvaient accoster, non pas dans le port mais devant la côte de Canton, d’octobre à mars, lors de la saison commerciale. C’est à Macao, à l’époque une possession Portugaise, que les Chinois leur fournissait le cas échéant une permission à cet effet. Les représentants de l’Empereur autorisaient alors des marchands chinois (les hongs) de commercer avec des navires étrangers tout en les chargeant de collecter les droits de douane avant qu’ils ne repartent.
Cette façon de commercer s’est amplifiée à la fin du XVIIIe siècle, notamment avec la forte demande anglaise de thé. C’est d’ailleurs du thé chinois de Fujian que les « insurgés » américains ont jeté à la mer lors de la fameuse « Boston Tea Party » de décembre 1773, un des premiers événements contre l’Empire britannique qui déclenchera la Révolution américaine. Des produits en provenance de l’Inde, en particulier le coton et l’opium furent échangés par la Compagnie des Indes orientales contre du thé, de la porcelaine et de la soie.
Les droits de douane collectés par le système de Canton étaient une source majeure de revenus pour la dynastie des Qing bien qu’elle bannira l’achat d’opium en provenance de l’Inde. Cette restriction imposée par l’Empereur chinois en 1796 conduira au déclenchement des guerres de l’Opium, la première dès 1839. En même temps, des rebellions éclatèrent dans les années 1850-60 contre le règne affaibli des Qing, doublées de guerres supplémentaires contre des puissances européennes hostiles.
En 1860, l’ancien Palais d’été (parc Yuanming), avec un ensemble de pavillons, de temples, de pagodes et de librairies, c’est-à-dire la résidence des empereurs de la dynastie Qing à 15 kilomètres au nord-ouest de la Cité interdite de Pékin, fut ravagée par les troupes britanniques et françaises lors de la Seconde guerre de l’opium. Cette agression reste dans l’histoire comme l’un des pires actes de vandalisme culturel du XIXe siècle. Le Palais fut mis à sac une deuxième fois en 1900 par une alliance de huit pays contre la Chine.
Aujourd’hui, on peut y admirer une statue de Victor Hugo et un texte qu’il avait écrit pour s’élever contre Napoléon III et les destructions de l’impérialisme français, pour rappeler que cela était non pas le fait d’une nation, mais celui d’un gouvernement.
A la fin de la première guerre mondiale, la Chine disposait de 48 ports ouverts où les étrangers pouvaient commercer en suivant leurs propres juridictions. Le XXe siècle fut une ère de révolutions et de changements sociaux. La fondation de la République populaire de Chine en 1949 engendra un repli sur soi.
Ce n’est qu’en 1978 que Deng Xiaoping annonça une politique d’ouverture sur le monde extérieur en vue de la modernisation du pays.
Au XXIe siècle, grâce à l’Initiative une ceinture (économique) une route (maritime) lancée par le Président Xi Jingping, la Chine ré-émerge comme une grande puissance mondiale offrant des coopérations mutuellement bénéfiques au service d’un meilleur avenir partagé pour l’humanité.